SCI-ART LAB

Science, Art, Litt, Science based Art & Science Communication

                                                                Interactive science series

Q: Is it possible that living beings with alternative chemistry exist in our universe?

Krishna: Very much possible. Sometime back I read about a workshop conducted by bringing experts in several fields of science titled "Alternative Chemistries of Life". The papers  these experts presented are really very fascinating. You can have a look at them here: http://alternativechemistries.emory.edu/assets/documents/alternativ...

Q: Why doesn’t our society worship scientists and their work but is obsessed with singers and actors?  

Krishna: Who needs worship? All that a scientist thinks and hopes when s/he discovered a new thing is that the world outside his/her lab understands it in the right way and gets benefited by it.
Go after singers and actors, leave the scientists alone to do their work, but if you have a life threatening disease, a scientist knows, you have no other go but to use his/her newly found drug to get cured. And s/he smiles with satisfaction.
Because s/he gave you another life to enjoy it with actors and singers!

Q: What would happen if scientists told all people there is only science, and not to notice anything other than what could be proved by science? 

Krishna: Only scientific principles govern this universe. This universe and life in it is based on a ‘scientific algorithm’. This is a fact.
If you notice anything else other than this, tell us about it and show evidence for that. If you can’t, leave it to scientists to unravel the mysteries of the language this universe is written in - in a scientific way. There is no other way to find out facts!

Q: Why do cancer patients lose weight?

Krishna: Cancer cells grow at a tremendous pace. They need energy for this and draw lots of it. In the process other cells in the body gets starved. 

Q: Is cancer just bad luck?

Krishna: You smoke two packets of cigarettes per day and when you get lung cancer, do you call it bad luck?
You chew tobacco ( or gutka) and when you get mouth cancer, do you call it ill luck?
You live in a highly polluted area or use wood for cooking and when you get cancer again, do you call it bad luck?
You stand in the sun without protection to get a tan for years together and when you get skin cancer, do you call that bad luck?
You consume food like mad, get fat and when your obesity causes cancer, do you call it bad luck?
You don’t take vaccines, get viral infection, and when this leads to cancer, do you call it bad luck?
Most of the cancers are caused by your recklessness. Don’t blame your ‘luck’ for it.

Q (Based on the above one): The logic with most of these people who think it is bad luck starts with the logic(?) ….But my friend also eats same or more Gutkha than me … then why ME?

Krishna:  When several factors decide outcomes, they follow the interplay of scientific rules and routes and exactly fit into the reaction realities. How a person survives a health condition or a catastrophe or a bad situation depends on the sum total outcomes of scientific factors occurring simultaneously.
One person might eat very healthy food which in turn might boost his immunity to fight cancer effectively. Another person might have genetic predisposition for certain health conditions which enhances of getting cancer if he is not careful.
You cannot compare one person with another while dealing with diseases and health conditions. That is why medical science now wants to deal each case separately and personalized treatment is the new mantra.

Q: Why do so many people, despite studying science, believe in ghosts and so many superstitions? Is it a failure on an individual level or on the social or educational level?  

An Asst. professor of science who works in an Indian University asking me the Q, "What is pseudo-science? Does such a thing really exist?"

A Post Graduate Engineer saying, ''Just because this hasn't been proved in labs - even if it is tested a thousand times - doesn't make it pseudo-science. It works for me and I believe in it!"

A 'Scientific Officer' working in a public sector lab harassing me for writing an article on pseudo-science.

A PG in science saying superstitions are science-based!

A science teacher saying that there is no difference between science and pseudo-science!

A PG in science saying that evidence doesn't count in science when majority of the people here agree on a contrary argument!

A professor who has a Ph.D. in computer science saying that ghosts exist!

I can understand an ignorant or an illiterate person saying these things. But when these things come from the mouths of highly qualified people of science?

Cry, India, cry! Our science training is in such a deplorable state. I hang my head in shame. We need another 1000 years to become scientifically advanced - not technically advanced - if we continue in this state.

The greatest irony I have observed here is - the person who uses the latest smart phone - has a mind of pre-scientific era! A person who makes the latest fashion statement, has a stale mind that belongs to 14th century. A deteriorating mind wrapped in high fashion! It sucks!

People are unable to overcome their cultural, religious, political and emotional conditioning of minds. They don’t know what critical thinking is. People think science training is like training in car driving. Learn it on the road and forget it when you go home. Or learn science when you are within the gates of an educational institute to get a job and forget it when you cross the gates. The first thing science training should be telling us is , once learned, science should be with you 24X365X100. It should enter each cell of your body, blood and influence every thought you process and thing you do. Then only you become a perfect person of science. Other wise you are just another job seeker. As long as it provides you some food you will be satisfied and still follow what your ancestors followed blindly 500 years back.

You don’t want to think differently, view things from another angle, don’t have the courage to come out of the influence of your groups, circles, friends and relatives. You cannot swim across the tide. You don’t have the capacity to make new waves.

Your mind has become stagnant. And what does stagnant water bring with it? Germs, infection, foul smell, disease and death.

We are mentally dying. And we don’t realize or don’t seem to care that as long as we can buy a new T-shirt similar to the one our friend is wearing today which has ‘Star of Science’ written on it!

What is responsible for this? Our attitude!

Our inability to understand what real science and progress are. Our Weakness of minds to overcome fear. Our inadequacy in the thinking process. Our ‘chalta hai’ way of thinking.

People who are different from all the others come from the same place. But still they could overcome all this. How?

If you have the answer, you will become a different and new person of science tomorrow!

Q: As a science communicator, what frustrates you the most?

Krishna: An Asst. professor of science who works in an Indian University asking me the Q, "What is pseudo-science? Does such a thing really exist?"

A Post Graduate Engineer saying, ''Just because this hasn't been proved in labs - even if it is tested a thousand times - doesn't make it pseudo-science. It works for me and I believe in it!"

A 'Scientific Officer' working in a public sector lab harassing me for writing an article on pseudo-science.

A PG in science saying superstitions are science-based!

A science teacher saying that there is no difference between science and pseudo-science!

A PG in science saying that evidence doesn't count in science when majority of the people here agree on a contrary argument! 

I can understand an ignorant or an illiterate person saying these things. But when these things come from the mouths of highly qualified people of science?

Cry, India, cry! Our science training is in such a deplorable state. I hang my head in shame. 

Q: Is scientific method completely opposite to humanistic method?

Krishna: Not necessarily. 

When people take responsibility for their own lives and choices to deepen authenticity, and to increase interpersonal awareness through dialogical therapy it becomes a humanistic method.

The definition of 'humanism' : an ethical system that centers on humans and their values, needs, interests, abilities, dignity and freedom; especially used for a secular one which rejects theistic religion and superstition.

And these things in humanism can be science based and science directed like in my case.

Q: Can diabetes be controlled without medicines?

Krishna: It can even be avoided in the first place! 

According to recent research, there are several angles to diabetes development 

Type 2 Diabetes results from peripheral resistance of insulin action coupled with destruction of beta cells of the pancreas. Despite the fact that pancreas is the focus in diabetes, there are three more important players, the liver, the muscle mass and the fat (adipose tissue).

The increase in blood sugar results from, the increase in glucose output from the liver, while the muscle and fat refuse to accept and take it up.

Cure / remission of diabetes is defined as HbA1C remaining < 6.5 for two months in the absence of diabetic medications.

The DIRECT trial, published recently in Lancet show that people who continued to take a low calorie diet (<850 K cal/day) had a 46% chance of diabetes remission compared to 4% in the control group.

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)33102-1/fulltext

This is different.

The sustained glycemic control as long as low calorie diet was maintained showing that there are more complex mechanisms involved involving fat metabolism. It is hypothesized that there is upregulation of some genes (ZFP516) which can convert white adipocytes (fat cells) to brown ones and change the whole metabolic milieu. Studies have shown that there is total change of metabolic activation on restriction of calorie including reduction of triacylglycerol in liver (less fatty liver) and less hepatic glucose output.

New research with sonic hedgehog gene, Volume responsive anion channels VRAC (channels that regulate adipocyte size) and the ZFP 516 alteration might make it possible for us to take as much as fat as we want and still remain thin.

Hedgehog signaling via Gli2 prevents obesity induced by high-fat di...

So calorie restriction has gone from an unimportant thing to an active control mechanism of diabetes mellitus.

And this is my personal experience...

My mother, both my grandmothers, my only and younger sister, all my uncles and aunties (both paternal and maternal), my cousins who are all related to me genetically have diabetes. I know I am genetically predisposed to diabetes. So I tried to avoid it by controlling  my eating habits and with calorie-restriction, the right food and good exercise till now I have evaded diabetes. And I hope to do so in the future too. Recent research shows I am right in my approach!

This is a good example of how scientific knowledge helps you in real life situations!

Q: Are alternative medical practitioners  biased while dealing with homeopathy? Why do they support it despite hearing that it 's pseudo-science?

Krishna: Recently we had a discussion on homeopathy and its pseudo-scientific nature. One lady, after listening to my arguments,  said, 'You are not a homeopathy doctor. You would have supported it had you been one'. 

And I replied to her, " I am glad, I am not one. I am glad I am a person of science. I am glad I am not attached to anything. That is why I can do unbiased analysis based only on facts and evidence. If everybody here can be like that, some sense would have prevailed instead of this chaos!"

Q: Can scientists be biased toward science?

Krishna: Science asks us to do unbiased reasoning. People say as I am attached to science, I can also be biased towards it. And my reply to these people: 

"Scientific methodology" is what prevents us falling into that trap. It is a wonderful safeguard that allows us to be sane, unbiased and  completely neutral. 

Q: If a scientist 's told after a life time of work that his work is flawed and therefore completely wrong, what will he do? Can he still stick to it?

Krishna:  If a scientist 's 'told with evidence' after a life time of work that his work is flawed and therefore completely wrong, he has to discard it. There is no other go. Science is not religion or ideology or belief or emotion or opinion. You cannot get attached to a proven flaw just because it is your work or idea. That is the beauty of scientific methodology. It makes you completely neutral and unbiased. And that is what I like about science. It takes you to reality and makes you accept it and live in it.

Q: Is there a material difference if I were to brush my teeth once instead of twice a day?

Krishna:

That depends on your age, your immune system, the food you eat, the beverages and water you drink, the state of your teeth ( do you have lots of gaps or deteriorated teeth?) the place you live in ( whether in a high temperature zone or low temperature zone) etc.

If you are old, or eat refined sugars or food ( instead of natural rough products), or fatty foods that stuck a lot, eat meet , drink lots of soft drinks or contaminated water, live in a place where bacteria can multiply and propagate very easily, yes, you have to brush your teeth twice and also floss it regularly.

Bacteria have developed resistance to medicated toothpastes.

Alcohol mouth washes are different. Most mouthwashes kill bacteria with alcohol. It's hard for a bacteria to evolve anti alcohol protections. However, some bacteria do develop resistance or tolerance towards alcohol too.

An antibacterial chemical like Triclosan commonly added to toothpaste may pose a threat to health. It can promote widespread bacterial resistance to antibiotics and scientists have called for further safety studies. The U.S. Food & Drug Administration is worried about bacterial resistance, as well as evidence that the chemical is a hormone disruptor.

The effects of triclosan depend largely on the concentration used.

At high concentrations it works by interfering with the outer membrane that protects bacteria, making it permeable so that triclosan can penetrate it and kill the microbes. At lower concentrations, triclosan attacks several targets. For instance, it slows down drastically several important biochemical reactions inside the bacteria.

Some bacteria have an innate resistance to triclosan, possibly because their outer membrane does not let it through. When bacteria are exposed to triclosan, some strains become resistant to it by mutating or by activating resistance genes bacteria away so there's nothing to become resistant to.

Researchers have uncovered the molecular tricks used by bacteria to fight the effects of fluoride too, which is commonly used in toothpaste and mouthwash to combat tooth decay. Sections of RNA messages called riboswitches -- which control the expression of genes -- detect the build-up of fluoride and activate the defenses of bacteria, including those that contribute to tooth decay.

Widespread Genetic Switches and Toxicity Resistance Proteins for Fl...

So you have to brush twice using a good tooth paste and floss. But you should also eat less sugars and refined food to avoid tooth decay.

Q: What if 'pseudo-science' is science without evidence? If one does not have evidence now does not mean that one cannot have evidence on the future. Like all things, science is limited.

Krishna: 

This universe is totally based on perfect scientific principles. Life is based on science. Everything in this universe is dependent on science. If it is limited, they don’t work properly and collapse. The working of universe in an exemplary manner is itself proof of its unlimited nature.

Our understanding of scientific knowledge is limited, not science! Get that right first.

Science without evidence as yet is a proposed theory and has some rational behind it based on our earlier or preliminary observations and information. It isn’t completely non-sense and ‘follows the scientific methodology’ to arrive at this destination. It invites falsification.

Pseudo-science defies all logic. It comes into existence when People try to give their ideas, views, opinions, agendas a ‘scientific twist’. It first takes a ‘belief system’ as conclusion then tries to build a false case around it, using non-sense or false assumptions which have no scientific base at all. And hopes it becomes a fact of science! And refuses ways of falsification.

The big difference between science and pseudo-science is a difference in approach. While a pseudo-science is set up to look for evidence that supports its claims, a science is set up to challenge its claims and look for evidence that might prove it false. In other words, pseudo-science seeks confirmations and science seeks falsifications. Sciences are testable, pseudo-sciences are not.

Get that right.

Do you think scientists are fools not to differentiate one from the other?

Be alert - Pseudo-Science and Anti-Science are on the Prowl!

Q: What are some ways of smelling good without using fragrance filled products on skin?

Krishna: During summer when we sweat a lot, I decorate my hair with flowers like jasmine, champak, pogada, mogili, sweet smelling roses - all natural scent spreading ones. Spreading the flowers in your home to make it smell good in the natural way is the best thing to do too.

jasmine : jasmine flower images - Google Search

champak: champaka flower images - Google Search

pogada

Image result for pogada poolu

Mogili  (Pandanus odoratissimus)

Image result for mogali flowers images

Q: What good can kajal do to our eyes?

Krishna: Sometime back we had a discussion on this! I am adding a part of it here.

These are the points some people have brought before us...

Surma or kajal have medicinal properties.

They provide cooling effect.

They prevent from bacterial infections!

Using them is a part of make up process and brings beauty to (female) eyes!

They block the UV rays from entering the eyes.

Okay. Now let us check whether these things stand up to scientific scrutiny.

Yes, some herbal products are used in making kajal and Surma. But the end product is actually soot which has lost all properties! As a microbiologist I can say with certainty that kajal or Surma don't have any medicinal or anti-bacterial properties. 

On the other hand if you don't prepare or use them in clean conditions and with clean hands, they themselves bring infection to your eyes!

I myself use Kajal prepared by my mother and grand mother using herbal products and castor oil. They don't cool my eyes when I sit before my computer for hours together or go out in the hot sun!

Does Kajal Block UV rays from entering your eye? The explanation given was...In desert you are in danger of Photokeratitis - Wikipedia, which is basically inflammation of cornea due to exposure to excess UV rays reflected from sand. One of the prevention against this condition is to paint area underneath your lower eyelid black.

I tried to grab some research papers on this. However, I got this result...

"How does using kajal prevent UV rays from entering your eyes? Never ever read such an explanation in any scientific research papers!

Using sunglasses that filter UV radiation is the only one officially recommended!

But... wait...this is what the person who told this benefit would occur if you use Surma continued with this argument...

 I remember Bear Grylls recommending this method during desert survival episode. Could it be that since eyes sit in a concave cavity, covering the area underneath the eyelids could prevent reflection of UV rays from that area into the eyes? ( So TV impact!):)

And this is my reply to him...

Sun rays enter the eye from all angles. You have to cover the whole eye using glasses or or eye lense ( and outer covering that cover it) using khol if you really want to prevent damage to your eyes!

Maybe during ancient times when there were no glasses, people thought about this and tried but I don’t think this will prevent damage from UV radiation.

According to wikipedia (I admit doesn’t give reliable information) it just is a belief ( and citation needed is added too!)

It also says and I quote

‘For decades various conflicting reports in the literature have been published relating to kohl application to eyes being responsible for causing higher blood lead concentration, which may cause lead poisoning. While at the same time, a number of research studies and reports have also been published refuting any such links with increased blood lead level upon kohl (surma) application’. ( This I think depends on the chemicals used).

And

A group of researchers in China tried to find some scientific basis of this claimed property of lead sulphide (galena) relating to absorption of sun rays when applied into the eyes in the form of kohl.

The authors reported the ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectra of a thin film of lead sulphide prepared on "Indium Tin Oxide" (ITO) substrate. The spectra showed that lead sulphide thin films had higher absorption and lower transmittance in UV light band which further increases with the increased deposition voltage.

However, and this is very important, the kohl has to cover the entire covering of the eye to stop the rays! (This is what I thought too). Just applying it to eye lids will not have much effect unless the kohl spreads to cover the entire outer covering of the eye. If it does, you cannot see much either!

The widespread use of kohl across the Mediterranean and the Mid-east attests to its ability to protect the eye from infectious disease and be used as a cosmetic. However, if you are not careful, the application itself causes infection!

http://advancejournals.org/Inter...

So yes I think there is an explanation of all these weird things after all. Most of the times its just our mind making things up. Your scientific analysis has helped me a lot.  

 I stopped watching horror movies. Started analyzing things in the way you explained and my fear has gone away. Thank you so much Dr. Krishna for bringing a solution to my problem. Nobody and nothing has done this to me before! No wonder I became one of your admirers! 

Krishna: Oh! Thank you so much! It feels so wonderful to hear such things and my efforts bringing good results. You made my day!

Q: What do scientists and statistics professionals think about Prithwis Mukerjee’s article trying to support astrology using correlation?

Link to the article: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/astrology-an-application-data-scienc...

Krishna: We get lots of strange interpretations and misleading analysis daily on the net. If the scientists have to go through each one and take on them, they will have to stop their work forever. They certainly can’t do this. This is taken as their ‘inability’ and these people who believe in pseudo-science have a ‘nice time’ propagating their views. We had a discussion on this. Misinformation and misleading articles are published more on the net than real science and information. And the time has come for real scientists to take a stand on them even though it is very difficult. This article is one such thing.

This article is a perfect example of pseudo-science. The author ‘s looking for confirmation instead of falsification. He first concluded that ‘astrology is science’ based on whatever he thought is appropriate way of approaching it and then weaved a story around it trying to prove it right!

Birds get up in the morning and sing because they depend on circadian rhythms and they in turn are based on Biochemistry of the birds. This is determined by scientific principles this universe and living systems are based on. Trains are scheduled to leave the stations at particular times determined by human beings based on factors like convenience of routes, passengers, drivers, weather etc. These things are determined by these factors.

Amazon tried to use software programmes to ‘predict’ what I ‘prefer’ but miserably failed to make me buy things on its site several times. But still it tries!:)

Okay, even if Amazon can predict, it is based on the data of my ‘likes’ and my ‘previous purchases’ but it doesn’t have data of my financial position, my ‘psychology’ of avoiding things I already have, my strong determination not to buy unnecessary things. So its predictions can only be ‘partial’ and ‘substandard’.

Just because a person buys something on a site doesn’t mean everybody with the same likings, financial backgrounds will buy the same. But they take a chance and sometimes it might work. Data science doesn’t work in case of a determined customers like me! The author himself says data science doesn’t work unless it is ‘perfected’.

AI works in that way because of data entry and ‘thinking’ programmed based on this by human beings.

Astrology basically lacks this ‘programming’ based on accurate data based on facts.

The ‘data of earlier times’ has changed now because of earth’s wobbling ( Why Astrology is pseudo-science ) and it keeps changing.

Pattern recognition works if there are definite patterns. If there are none, and if you try to bring unrelated things togetehr, it becomes a big farce. Thousands have tried to predict things correctly but failed miserably.

Nice try by the author! I read a research paper some time back which says that the more a person is learned the more he uses his learning to substantiate his beliefs if he is not a real critical thinker. This article proves this once again.

Q: What do you think of this article   Is-enlightenment-a-controlled-mental-state-or-disorder-in-the-eyes-...

which mentions your article  Science and Spirituality

Krishna: Thanks to the author for mentioning me and quoting my article. I am not much into spirituality but the world of science is my spiritual field and whatever salvation I get, it is only from the science I follow!

Q: Why does Astrology still exist?

Krishna: Because not all people can think critically. They can easily get fooled by ‘crazy talk’. And their curiosity to lean about their future is being exploited by astrologers and this psychology of people works for astrologers to get easy money!

Why Astrology is pseudo-science

Q: How does opioid overdose kill people?

Krishna: When a person smokes, snorts or injects an opioid, the substance enters the bloodstream, then the brain. There it can act on mu-opioid receptors, according to experts. Once the drug binds to those opioid receptors and activates them, it sets off a cascade of psychological and physical actions; it produces euphoric effects, but it also produces respiratory-depressing effects.

As a result, victims of a fatal overdose usually die from respiratory depression—literally choking to death because they cannot get enough oxygen to feed the demands of the brain and other organ systems. This happens for several reasons. When the drug binds to the mu-opioid receptors it can have a sedating effect, which suppresses brain activity that controls breathing rate. It also hampers signals to the diaphragm, which otherwise moves to expand or contract the lungs. Opioids additionally depress the brain’s ability to monitor and respond to carbon dioxide when it builds up to dangerous levels in the blood. It’s just the most diabolical way to die, because all the reflexes you have to rescue yourself have been suppressed by the opioid.

Antidotes can rescue a person from this situation but only if he is taken in time to hospital and if the limited ( concentration which limits  any damage to the living system)  antidote strength can counter the opioid.

Naloxone (which is one such anti-dote ) can short-circuit that deadly spiral. It races to those same receptors and lies in wait. Then, as soon as an opioid molecule falls off the receptor (as it normally would every few seconds or minutes), naloxone immediately latches on and takes its place before the drug can bind once again. This halts the respiratory-depressing actions—and often sends a user into an agonizing drug withdrawal.

Synthetic opioids present two problems that can interfere with Naloxone’s lifesaving process. One is a matter of timing: These substances are so powerful they may act extremely quickly, suppressing a person’s breathing before naloxone has a chance to reach its target. The second issue is potency: The synthetic drugs bind to receptors much more tightly than an opium-derived substance such as heroin or a semisynthetic opioid like oxycodone, so the antidote has difficulty reaching its destination. To overcome these hurdles, doctors may give a patient multiple injections of naloxone—hopefully overwhelming the drugs that are competing for a place at key targets in the brain.

Q: Who studies science?

Krishna: Anybody who is interested in it!

Q: How can I prevent diabetes melitus which is present in my family heredity?

Krishna: I already did, at least till now.

According to recent research, there are several angles to diabetes development

Despite the fact that pancreas is the focus in diabetes, there are three more important players, the liver, the muscle mass and the fat (adipose tissue).

The increase in blood sugar results from, the increase in glucose output from the liver, while the muscle and fat refuse to accept and take it up.

Cure / remission of diabetes is defined as HbA1C remaining < 6.5 for two months in the absence of diabetic medications.

The DIRECT trial, published recently in Lancet show that people who continued to take a low calorie diet (<850 K cal/day) had a 46% chance of diabetes remission compared to 4% in the control group.

http://www.thelancet.com/journal...(17)33102-1/fulltext

This is different.

The sustained glycemic control as long as low calorie diet was maintained showing that there are more complex mechanisms involved involving fat metabolism. It is hypothesized that there is upregulation of some genes (ZFP516) which can convert white adipocytes (fat cells) to brown ones and change the whole metabolic milieu. Studies have shown that there is total change of metabolic activation on restriction of calorie including reduction of triacylglycerol in liver (less fatty liver) and less hepatic glucose output.

New research with sonic hedgehog gene, Volume responsive anion channels VRAC (channels that regulate adipocyte size) and the ZFP 516 alteration might make it possible for us to take as much as fat as we want and still remain thin.

Hedgehog signaling via Gli2 prevents obesity induced by high-fat di...

So calorie restriction has been recognized as an active control mechanism of diabetes.

And this is my personal experience...

My mother, both my grandmothers, my only and younger sister, all my uncles and aunties (both paternal and maternal), my cousins who are all related to me genetically have diabetes. I know I am genetically predisposed to diabetes. So I tried to avoid it by controlling my eating habits and with calorie-restriction, the right food and good exercise till now I have evaded diabetes. And I hope to do so in the future too. Recent research shows I am right in my approach!

Any genetic pattern need to express as a phenotype, depends on the environment.Even in families where there is a strong history of diabetes, regular exercise, diet control and maintenance of ideal body might prevent expression of diabetes to a large extent.This is especially true in diabetes, hypertension and cardiac disease which is not monogenic (single gene defect).

You cannot change your parents but you can certainly alter the expression of your genes.

This is a good example of how scientific knowledge helps you in real life situations!

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