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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 12
Latest Activity: 5 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 328 articles posted here. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs peopel asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  thier children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-to-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

Some Qs. people asked me on science and my replies to them - Part 85

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Saturday. 1 Reply

                                                                      Interactive science seriesQ: How can any scientist be happy? What is it about reality that is cheerful?Krishna: “This looks…Continue

Some Qs. people asked me on science and my replies to them - Part 84

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Feb 6. 1 Reply

                                                              Interactive science seriesQ: I read your article on …Continue

Some Qs. people asked me on science and my replies to them - Part 83

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Feb 3. 1 Reply

                                                                      Interactive science seriesQ: Why don't some children don't get diseases despite not taking vaccines?Krishna: The reason some…Continue

Some Qs. people asked me on science and my replies to them - Part 82

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Feb 2. 1 Reply

                                                       Interactive science seriesJournalists, this is for you ...I got two messages yesterday - one from a very worried pregnant lady... and another…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 14, 2017 at 9:47am

More than 15,000 scientists from 184 countries issue 'warning to humanity'

More than 15,000 scientists around the world have issued a global warning: there needs to be change in order to save Earth.

It comes 25 years after the first notice in 1992 when a mere 1,500 scientists issued a similar warning. 

This new cautioning — which gained popularity on Twitter with #ScientistsWarningToHumanity — garnered more than 15,000 signatures. 

What is it about? Read the article here:

http://scientistswarning.forestry.oregonstate.edu/sites/sw/files/Wa...

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A team of researchers in Singapore has identified a molecular pathway that suppresses virus-induced cancers. They published their findings in PLOS Pathogens. Some cancers are known to be caused by viral infections. For example, two strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV) are responsible for up to 70 percent of cervical cancer cases. The virus causes abnormal cell growth by inserting its genetic material into the cells of the cervix. Uncontrolled cell growth is typically prevented by the shortening of telomeres—protective caps on the ends of chromosomes. Each time a cell divides into two, the telomeres get shortened, and the cell eventually stops dividing. Cancer cells, however, are known to bypass this limit by producing telomerase, an enzyme that extends the length of telomeres. In HPV-infected cells, the protein TIP60 is known to prevent progression to cervical cancer, but the interactions between TIP60 and telomerase remain unknown. In this study, researchers at the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore (CSI Singapore) and the National University of Singapore (NUS) examined the regulation of telomerase by TIP60 in virus-induced cancer cells. The team discovered that TIP60 inhibits telomerase by interacting with and modifying a partner molecule, Sp1. When TIP60 modifies Sp1, Sp1 can no longer bind to the regulatory sequences of the telomerase gene to activate it. This results in less production of telomerase, which prevents the cancer cells from continuous division. The identification of this molecular pathway opens a new window of hope for therapeutic interventions against cancers. “Our findings hold exciting potential in the fight against a range of virus-induced cancers, including cervical cancer, liver cancer and Burkitt’s Lymphoma,” said study corresponding author Dr. Sudhakar Jha, a principal investigator at CSI Singapore. “Given that 85 percent of cancers are triggered by high amounts of telomerase, our study, which lends a deeper insight into the inhibition of telomerase by TIP60, could also be applied to other groups of cancer such as breast, colorectal and ovarian cancer. Our next step is therefore to investigate the influence of this new pathway in these other groups of cancer,” he added. The article can be found at: Rajagopalan et al. (2017) TIP60 Represses Telomerase Expression by Inhibiting Sp1 Binding to the TERT Promoter.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 11, 2017 at 8:48am

How science is saving lives....

A team of researchers from Germany, Austria, and Italy gave a young boy with the genetic disease junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) new skin cells that saved his life. The work is detailed in the Nature paper "Regeneration of the entire human epidermis using transgenic stem ce..."

JEB is caused by genetic mutations in the genes LAMA3, LAMB3 or LAMC2. These three genes are required to form the protein laminin - a key component of the extracellular matrix which acts like the glue that holds cells together. When one of these genes is mutated, the extracellular matrix is disrupted and the skin blisters, erodes, and has recurrent infections. This disease is a nightmare - resulting in pain while living and an early death.  

Altering a gene (in this case, making a correction) is done in labs all around the world every day. This team of scientists had talent to do this. They worked with a genetic disease with known mutations in cells that could be modified in cells that could then grafted back onto the patient.

The first step in the process was the correction of the genetic mutation.

This is potentially the least complicated step in this process. The scientists had all of the information and tools necessary to make this happen. The DNA was constructed and put into a virus that infects skin cells. This viral vector is an incredibly useful way to place DNA into cells. The new DNA then becomes part of the genome of the skin cell. In this process, the skin cell now has a corrected version of the mutated gene in their genome. 

The second step of the process was making more of the corrected cells. In this particular part of the process - as our skin is one of the few organs that have stem cells positioned in and amongst our normal skin cells (called keratinocytes)- these are not the frequently discussed pluripotent stem cells; instead, these stem cells are dedicated to making more skin. This is important for the normal wear and tear that happens to our skin. When the mutated gene was corrected in one of these cells, it would make more cells with the corrected gene. Over time, there were enough cells to graft onto the patient. 

Both of these two major steps are events that happen in labs across the world every day. But, like many significant advancements, this was made possible by a combination of the right problem, the right tools and good hands of motivated scientists. So, some good old fashioned genetic sequencing and cell culture have saved a boys life - and that is the most amazing scientific story of the year.  

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 10, 2017 at 8:31am

Nov. 10th: World Science Day for Peace and Development
An internationally celebrated day to highlight the importance of science in and for society and that science, peace and development are interlinked

Celebrated every 10 November, World Science Day for Peace and Development highlights the important role of science in society and the need to engage the wider public in debates on emerging scientific issues. It also underlines the importance and relevance of science in our daily lives.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 8, 2017 at 6:44am

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 3, 2017 at 7:30am

Earth’s multiscale microbial diversity Catalogue

A meta-analysis of microbial community samples collected by hundreds of researchers for the Earth Microbiome Project. Coordinated protocols and new analytical methods, particularly the use of exact sequences instead of clustered operational taxonomic units, enable bacterial and archaeal ribosomal RNA gene sequences to be followed across multiple studies and allow us to explore patterns of diversity at an unprecedented scale. The result is both a reference database giving global context to DNA sequence data and a framework for incorporating data from future studies, fostering increasingly complete characterization of Earth’s microbial diversity.

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature24621

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on October 28, 2017 at 5:31am

The time of day of your surgery could have long-term impacts on your health. That’s according to researchers who looked at the way circadian rhythm—the body’s internal clock—affects  the outcomes of a patient recovering from a complex heart procedure.

Patients who underwent open-heart surgery in the afternoon experienced better health outcomes compared to those who got operated on in the morning, study authors found after six years of observing nearly 600 patients who underwent heart valve replacement. In the subsequent 500 days after surgery, researchers found, those patients who had surgery after noon had half the risk of a major cardiac event—for instance myocardial infarction, acute heart failure, or death—as those who had surgeries before then.

University of Lille-France professor David Montaigne, the study’s lead author, suggests that the study’s findings indicate that scheduling changes could decrease injury or death.

“There are few other surgical options to reduce the risk of post-surgery heart damage, meaning new techniques to protect patients are needed,” Montaigne said in a statement. “Our findings suggest this is because part of the biological mechanism behind the damage is affected by a person’s circadian clock and the underlying genes that control it.”

The findings are the latest in a growing body of evidence suggesting that time of day plays an important role in how well various medical treatments work. Studies show that the efficacy of some vaccines and cancer treatments may be affected by the time of day when a therapy is administered or medicine is taken. For example, research has found that patients who received a seasonal flu vaccination before 11 a.m. produced more antibodies than those who had one after 3 p.m.

“This study underscores the importance of the circadian rhythm biology that’s finally starting to gain recognition in science. This could potentially save a lot of lives. 

http://www.thelancet-press.com/embargo/heartsurgery.pdf

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on October 21, 2017 at 6:53am

When the courts here banned bursting of Diwali fire crackers, several people , criticized it protested and disregarded the ban. But at what cost? Read this:

Pollution is the largest environmental cause of disease and death in the world today, responsible for an estimated 9 million premature deaths according to The Lancet Commission on pollution and health.

The new study, published in the journal The Lancet and written by more than 40 international health and environmental experts, uses data from the the Global Burden of Disease, an international study that examines trends across populations and estimates mortality from major diseases and their causes. It i t looked at the effects of air pollution, or air contaminated with things like gases and the burning of wood, charcoal and coal; water pollution, which includes contamination by things like unhygienic sanitation; and workplace pollution, where employees are exposed to toxins and carcinogens like coal or asbestos.

Air pollution was linked to 6.5 million deaths in 2015, water pollution was linked to 1.8 million deaths and workplace pollution was linked to nearly one million deaths. Deaths from pollution-linked diseases, like heart disease and cancer, were three times higher than deaths from AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined, the researchers found.

The authors also found that 92% of pollution-related deaths happen in low- and middle-income countries. In growing countries like India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Madagascar and Kenya, the researchers say that up to one in four deaths can be tied to pollution. China and India had the greatest number of pollution-related deaths in 2015. That year, pollution in China was linked to 1.8 million deaths, and pollution in India was linked to 2.5 million deaths. 

The researchers note that their data are likely underestimates and do not reflect the entire burden of disease from pollution. For instance, the researchers didn't look at other contaminants, like the effects of endocrine disruptors, flame retardants and pesticides on human health and early deaths. Fuller says there isn't data of high enough quality or quantity on those health issues.

 

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on October 10, 2017 at 11:06am

5000 years of science development in India is being shown in an exhibition in London, UK

  • First written zero on a 1700-year-old birch bark manuscript

  • Oldest artefact is set of weights that standardised mud brick production

  • Exhibition at UK’s Science Museum in London

     
A light scattering technique invented in the early 20th century and a fragile manuscript documenting the earliest known symbol for a numerical zero are among achievements of Indian science highlighted in an exhibition that opened this week at the Science Museum in London, UK.

Illuminating India, which runs until 31 March 2018, marks 70 years from the country’s independence by celebrating global contributions to scientific advancement, as well as photography, from 3000 BC to the present day.

Mainstream views of science and technology tend to be Eurocentric, according to the curator, and the aim of the exhibition is to “redress that balance” by bringing India’s contribution to the centre.

He pointed to a set of standardised weights, the oldest artefact on display, as an example of how early scientific thought made it possible – through the production of mud bricks of standardized sizes – for the Indus Valley Civilisation to build large cities comparable to those later built by the Romans.
The scientific achievements on show range from space exploration – through early astronomy and India’s modern space programme – to the Great Trigonometrical Survey that mapped the subcontinent in the nineteenth century, and to the study of nature through technology such as Raman spectrometry, a light-scattering technique still used today to analyse the make-up of different materials.
Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on October 7, 2017 at 9:14am

Pesticides in natural honey!

WHEN researchers collected honey samples from around the world, they found that three-quarters of them had a common type of pesticide suspected of playing a role in the decline of bees.

Even honey from the island paradise of Tahiti had the chemical.

That demonstrates how pervasive a problem the much-debated pesticide is for honeybees, said authors of a study published Thursday in the journal Science.

They said it is not a health problem for people because levels were far below governments’ thresholds on what’s safe to eat.

“What this shows is the magnitude of the contamination,” said study lead author Edward Mitchell, a biology professor at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland, adding that there are “relatively few places where we did not find any”.

Over the past few years, several studies — in the lab and the field — link insecticides called neonicotinoids, or neonics, to reduced and weakened honeybee hives, although pesticide makers dispute those studies.

Neonics work by attacking an insect’s central nervous system; bees and other pollinators have been on the decline for more than a decade and experts blame a combination of factors: neonics, parasites, disease, climate change and lack of a diverse food supply.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on October 4, 2017 at 9:31am

Three scientists who laid the groundwork for the first direct detection of gravitational waves have won the Nobel Prize in physics. Rainer Weiss of MIT, and Kip Thorne and Barry Barish, both of Caltech, will share the 9-million-Swedish-kronor (about $1.1 million) prize, with half going to Weiss and the remainder split between Thorne and Barish.

Weiss, Thorne and Barish are pioneers of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory, or LIGO. On February 11, 2016, LIGO scientists announced they had spotted gravitational waves produced by a pair of merging black holes. This first-ever detection generated a frenzy of excitement among physicists and garnered front-page headlines around the world.

LIGO’s observation of gravitational waves directly confirmed a 100-year-old prediction of Einstein’s general theory of relativity — that rapidly accelerating massive objects stretch and squeeze spacetime, producing ripples  that travel outward from the source.

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An imaging technique that freezes tiny biological objects such as proteins and viruses in place so that scientists can peer into their structures at the scale of atoms has won its developers the 2017 Nobel Prize in chemistry.

Jacques Dubochet of the University of Lausanne in Switzerland, Joachim Frank of Columbia University and Richard Henderson of the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England, won for their contributions to the development of the technique, called cryo-electron microscopy, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced October 4. 

 

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