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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 20 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 573 articles posted here. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs peopel asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......185

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  thier children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

Why majority of scientists trust their colleagues when they say AGW is happening

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Nov 23. 2 Replies

One student asked me yesterday, " Can you explain why majority of scientists trust their colleagues when they say AGW is happening despite opposition from climate change deniers and their emotional…Continue

Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them - part 248

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Nov 21. 1 Reply

Q: Why do we have two nostrils instead of a one big one?Krishna: Oh, for double nose piercing! Jokes apart, we also have two eyes, two ears and two nostrils but only one trachea connecting them to…Continue

We can see actual evolution before our own eyes!

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Nov 19. 1 Reply

Q: Why can't we see any actual examples of evolution? Is it because they are all "microevolution"?Krishna: Can't we see any actual examples of evolution? We can! I will give a few examples.''Rapid…Continue

How the brain of a Polymath copes with all the things it does

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Nov 17. 11 Replies

People ask me how I cope with all the things I do.  It made me analyse how my brain works. When I think about it, I too am amazed. Earlier, I never thought I was capable of doing all these things at…Continue

Comment Wall

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You need to be a member of Science Simplified! to add comments!

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Friday

‘Super jelly’ can survive being run over by a car

Researchers have developed a jelly-like material that can withstand the equivalent of an elephant standing on it, and completely recover to its original shape, even though it’s 80% water.

The soft-yet-strong material, developed by a team at the University of Cambridge, looks and feels like a squishy jelly, but acts like an ultra-hard, shatterproof glass when compressed, despite its high water content.

The non-water portion of the material is a network of polymers held together by reversible on/off interactions that control the material’s mechanical properties. This is the first time that such significant resistance to compression has been incorporated into a soft material.

The ‘super jelly’ could be used for a wide range of potential applications, including soft robotics, bioelectronics or even as a cartilage replacement for biomedical use. The results are reported in the journal Nature Materials.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41563-021-01124-x

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 25, 2021 at 10:43am

Tracing down why these alternate genetic codes emerged during evolutionary history is difficult, multiple researchers tell The Scientist, in no small part because humans couldn’t watch it happen. But the authors do have some hypotheses.

 a bacterium that uses the same alternate code as a bacteriophage virus that infects it, indicating that the bacteria seemingly evolved an alternate code that prevented its cellular machinery from being hijacked—and that the phage may have then made the same adaptation to follow its host.

https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/screen-of-250-000-specie...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 25, 2021 at 10:41am

Screen of 250,000 Species Reveals Tweaks to Genetic Code

A massive screen of bacterial and archaeal genomes revealed five previously unknown instances where an organism uses an alternate code to translate genetic blueprints into proteins.

he genetic code that dictates how genetic information is translated into specific proteins is less rigid than scientists have long assumed, according to research published today (November 9) in eLife. In the paper, scientists report screening the genomes of more than 250,000 species of bacteria and archaea and finding five organisms that rely on an alternate genetic code, signifying branches in evolutionary history that haven’t been fully explained.

The genetic code refers to how sequences of DNA nucleotide bases lead to specific chains of amino acids during the process of protein synthesis. To perform this synthesis, ribosomes read strands of mRNA—copies of bits of the organism’s genome—in chunks of three bases at a time. Each three-base sequence, known as a codon, binds to a specific transfer RNA (tRNA) that ferries a corresponding amino acid to the ribosome to the added to the protein chain. An organism with an alternate genetic code, like the five new instances that the study authors found, has codons that correspond to different amino acids than they would in the standard genetic code employed by the vast majority of known life forms.

The genetic code has been set in stone for 3 billion years. The fact that some organisms have found a way to change it is really fascinating . Changing the genetic code requires changing ancient, important molecules like tRNAs that are so fundamental to how biology works.

As such, the code was thought to be largely preserved across all forms of life, with scientists finding the occasional exception during the past several decades of research. In addition to finding five new alternate genetic codes, the team also verified seven others that had been discovered one-by-one in the past, bringing the total number of known exceptions in bacteria to 12.

Part of the reason changes do happen is that some bacterial genomes may have a low composition of certain nucleotides compared to others. That brings the usage of codons that rely on those nucleotides down to nearly zero, making it easier for an organism to survive shifts without altering too many proteins in a drastic way.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 25, 2021 at 9:36am

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 25, 2021 at 8:46am

The retina's photoreceptor population is formed of cones, which mediate color vision, and rods, which adapt vision in low/dim light. This study focused on cones and observed color contrast sensitivity, along the protan axis (measuring red-green contrast) and the tritan axis (blue-yellow).

All the participants were aged between 34 and 70, had no ocular disease, completed a questionnaire regarding eye health prior to testing, and had normal color vision (cone function). This was assessed using a 'Chroma Test': identifying colored letters that had very low contrast and appeared increasingly blurred, a process called color contrast.

Using a provided LED device all 20 participants (13 female and 7 male) were exposed to three minutes of 670nm deep red light in the morning between 8am and 9am. Their color vision was then tested again three hours post exposure and 10 of the participants were also tested one week post exposure.

On average there was a 'significant' 17% improvement in color vision, which lasted a week in tested participants; in some older participants there was a 20% improvement, also lasting a week.

A few months on from the first test (ensuring any positive effects of the deep red light had been 'washed out') six (three female, three male) of the 20 participants, carried out the same test in the afternoon, between 12pm to 1pm. When participants then had their color vision tested again, it showed zero improvement.

Morning exposure is absolutely key to achieving improvements in declining vision: as we have previously seen in flies, mitochondria have shifting work patterns and do not respond in the same way to light in the afternoon—this study confirms this.

Weeklong improved colour contrasts sensitivity after single 670nm exposures associated with enhanced mitochondrial function, Scientific Reports (2021). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-02311-1

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-11-morning-exposure-deep-red-de...

Part 3

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 25, 2021 at 8:45am

In humans around 40 years old, cells in the eye's retina begin to age, and the pace of this aging is caused, in part, when the cell's mitochondria, whose role is to produce energy (known as ATP) and boost cell function, also start to decline.

Mitochondrial density is greatest in the retina's photoreceptor cells, which have high energy demands. As a result, the retina ages faster than other organs, with a 70% ATP reduction over life, causing a significant decline in photoreceptor function as they lack the energy to perform their normal role.

In studying the effects of deep red light in humans, researchers built on their previous findings in mice, bumblebees and fruit flies, which all found significant improvements in the function of the retina's photoreceptors when their eyes were exposed to 670 nanometre (long wavelength) deep red light.

"Mitochondria have specific sensitivities to long wavelength light influencing their performance: longer wavelengths spanning 650 to 900nm improve mitochondrial performance to increase energy production.

part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 25, 2021 at 8:44am

Morning exposure to deep red light improves declining eyesight

Just three minutes of exposure to deep red light once a week, when delivered in the morning, can significantly improve declining eyesight, finds a pioneering new study by UCL researchers.

Published in Scientific Reports, the study builds on the team's previous work, which showed daily three-minute exposure to longwave deep red light 'switched on' energy producing mitochondria cells in the , helping boost naturally declining .

For this latest study, scientists wanted to establish what effect a single three-minute exposure would have, while also using much lower energy levels than their previous studies. Furthermore, building on separate UCL research in flies that found mitochondria display 'shifting workloads' depending on the time of day, the team compared morning exposure to afternoon exposure.

Researchers found there was, on average, a 17% improvement in participants' color contrast vision when exposed to three minutes of 670 nanometre (long wavelength) deep red light in the morning and the effects of this single exposure lasted for at least a week. However, when the same test was conducted in the afternoon, no improvement was seen.

Scientists say the benefits of deep red light, highlighted by the findings, mark a breakthrough for  and should lead to affordable home-based eye therapies, helping the millions of people globally with naturally declining vision.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 25, 2021 at 8:26am

Microscopes allow scientists to see down to the level of a single micron, about the size of some organelles, such as mitochondria. Smaller elements, such as individual proteins and protein complexes, can't be seen through a microscope. Biochemistry techniques, which start with a single , allow scientists to get down to the nanometer scale.

"But how do you bridge that gap from nanometer to micron scale? That has long been a big hurdle in the biological sciences. Turns out you can do it with artificial intelligence—looking at data from multiple sources and asking the system to assemble it into a model of a cell.

The team trained the MuSIC artificial intelligence platform to look at all the data and construct a model of the cell. The system doesn't yet map the cell contents to specific locations, like a textbook diagram, in part because their locations aren't necessarily fixed. Instead, component locations are fluid and change depending on cell type and situation.

The clear next step is to blow through the entire human cell," Ideker said, "and then move to different cell types, people and species. Eventually we might be able to better understand the molecular basis of many diseases by comparing what's different between healthy and diseased .

Trey Ideker, A multi-scale map of cell structure fusing protein images and interactions, Nature (2021). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-04115-9www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-04115-9

https://phys.org/news/2021-11-cells-ai-technique-reveals.html?utm_s...

**

Part 3

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 25, 2021 at 8:24am

they eventually determined the structure to be a new complex of proteins that binds RNA. The complex is likely involved in splicing, an important cellular event that enables the translation of genes to proteins, and helps determine which genes are activated at which times.

The insides of cells—and the many proteins found there—are typically studied using one of two techniques: microscope imaging or biophysical association. With imaging, researchers add florescent tags of various colors to proteins of interest and track their movements and associations across the microscope's field of view. To look at biophysical associations, researchers might use an antibody specific to a protein to pull it out of the cell and see what else is attached to it.

The team has been interested in mapping the inner workings of cells for many years. What's different about this study  is the use of deep learning to map the cell directly from cellular microscopy images. The combination of these technologies is unique and powerful because it's the first time measurements at vastly different scales have been brought together.

part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 25, 2021 at 8:23am

We might not know half of what's in our cells, new AI technique reveals

Most human diseases can be traced to malfunctioning parts of a cell—a tumor is able to grow because a gene wasn't accurately translated into a particular protein or a metabolic disease arises because mitochondria aren't firing properly, for example. But to understand what parts of a cell can go wrong in a disease, scientists first need to have a complete list of parts.

By combining microscopy, biochemistry techniques and , researchers have taken what they think may turn out to be a significant leap forward in the understanding of human cells. The technique, known as Multi-Scale Integrated Cell (MuSIC), is described November 24, 2021 in Nature.

Scientists have long realized there's more that we don't know than we know, but now we finally have a way to look deeper. In the , MuSIC revealed approximately 70 components contained within a human kidney cell line, half of which had never been seen before. In one example, the researchers spotted a group of proteins forming an unfamiliar structure.

Part 1

 

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