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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 2 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 740 articles posted here. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs peopel asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......185

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  thier children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

Qs on science and my replies - part 254

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Tuesday. 1 Reply

Q: Has any scientist proven what happens after death?Krishna: People imagine several things. Give sweet explanations to satisfy your craving emotions. And then ask science and scientists to prove…Continue

What is Nocebo Effect?

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jan 20. 2 Replies

In medicine, a nocebo (Latin for "I shall harm") is an inert substance that creates harmful effects in a patient. The nocebo effect is the adverse reaction experienced by a patient who receives a…Continue

Rationality declined decades ago: study finds

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jan 17. 1 Reply

Scientists have discovered that the increasing irrelevance of factual truth in public discourse is part of a groundswell trend that started decades ago.While the current "post-truth era" has taken…Continue

T cells artificially endowed with 2 cancer-seeking receptors aim to be an elite army of cancer killers

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jan 15. 1 Reply

Despite high remission rates for patients treated with T cells that are supercharged in laboratories into elite cancer warriors, there is still a considerable population of patients who eventually…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 11, 2022 at 8:40am

What is 5G?

5G stands for fifth-generation cellular network technology.

It's the technology that enables —for example, from your  to a cell tower, which channels it to the internet. 5G is a network service provided by telecommunications carriers and is not the same thing as the 5 GHz band on your Wi-Fi router.

5G offers an order of magnitude—10 times—more bandwidth than its predecessor, 4G. The greater bandwidth is possible because over and above low and medium frequency radio waves, 5G uses additional higher-frequency waves to encode and carry information.

Bandwidth is analogous to the width of a highway. The broader the highway, the more lanes it can have and the more cars it can carry at the same time. This makes 5G much faster and able to handle many more devices.

5G can deliver speeds of around 50 megabits per second, up to more than 1 gigabit per second. A gigabit per second connection allows you to download a high-definition movie in less than a minute. Does this mean no more bad cell connections in crowded places? The increased bandwidth will help, but just as increasing the number of lanes on highways does not always reduce , as more people use the expanded highways, 5G is likely to carry a lot more traffic than 4G networks, so you still might not get a good connection sometimes.

In addition to connecting your phone and cellular-enabled laptop, 5G will be connecting many other devices ranging from photo frames to toasters as part of the Internet of Things revolution. So even though 5G can handle up to a million devices per , all that bandwidth could be quickly used up and require more—a future 5.5G with even more .

Part1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 10, 2022 at 10:06am

Risk of Death For Female Patients Is Much Higher if Surgeon Is a Man, Study Reveals

For female patients, operation outcomes tend to be significantly better when their surgeon is also female, recent research out of Canada has found.

No one really knows why that is just yet, but a new model comparing the sex of the surgeon, the sex of the patient, and the outcomes of the surgery have now revealed an implicit bias that could be costing patients their health and even their lives.

The data is based on more than 1.3 million patients who underwent one of 21 common elective surgeries in Ontario, Canada between 2007 and 2019.

Overall, the analysis suggests that when a male surgeon treats a female patient, that patient is 16 percent more likely to experience complications, 20 percent more likely to remain in the hospital for longer, and 32 percent more likely to die than if they were treated by a female surgeon.

On the other hand, male patients treated by a female surgeon were only 2 percent more likely to experience complications, and 13 percent less likely to die than if they had seen a male surgeon.

The underlying reason or reasons for this discrepancy in care remains unclear, but this isn't the first time a study has found a patient's sex might impact how their doctor treats them.

In 2018, female patients in Florida hospitals who were seeking care for heart attacks were found to have higher mortality when treated by male physicians.

In comparison, female physicians had more consistent outcomes no matter whether their patient was male or female.

Interestingly, male surgeons who had more exposure to female physicians and female patients had better outcomes for women.

While some past studies suggest female physicians prescribe different follow-up tests and medications compared to male doctors, or that they listen more to their patients, further research is needed to determine which factors are influencing these outcomes the most. Once we can figure that out, we can start to mend the bias.

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamasurgery/article-abstract/2786671

https://www.sciencealert.com/female-patients-are-much-likelier-to-s...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 10, 2022 at 9:10am

Engineered nanomaterial captures off-target cancer drug to prevent tissue damage

 Standard chemotherapies may efficiently kill cancer cells, but they also pose significant risks to healthy cells, resulting in secondary illness and a diminished quality of life for patients. To prevent the previously unavoidable damage, researchers have developed a new class of nanomaterials engineered to capture chemotherapy drugs before they interact with healthy tissue.

The method, now available online prior to the March issue of Materials Today Chemistry, is based on hairy cellulose nanocrystals—nanoparticles developed from the main component of plant cell walls and engineered to have immense numbers of polymer chain "hairs" extending from each end. These hairs increase the potential drug capture capacity of the nanocrystals significantly beyond that of conventional nanoparticles and ion exchange resins.

For some organs, like the liver, chemotherapy can be locally administered through catheters. If we could place a device based on the nanocrystals to capture the excess drugs exiting the liver's inferior vena cava, a major blood vessel, clinicians could potentially administer higher doses of chemotherapy to kill the cancer more quickly without worry about damaging healthy cells. Once the treatment is finished, the device could be removed.

To produce the hairy cellulose nanocrystals capable of capturing chemotherapy drugs, the researchers chemically treated cellulose fibers found in softwood pulp and imparted a negative charge on the hairs, making them stable against the ionic composition of blood. According to the researchers this corrects a fault of conventional nanoparticles, whose charge can be rendered inert or reduced when exposed to blood, limiting the number of positively charged drug molecules with which it can bind to insignificant numbers.

The nanocrystals' binding efficacy was tested in human serum, the protein-rich portion of blood that does not contain red or white blood cells or platelets. For every gram of hairy cellulose nanocrystals, more than 6,000 milligrams of DOX were effectively removed from the serum.

The researchers also found that the nanocrystals had no harmful effect on red blood cells in whole blood or on cell growth in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  1. Sarah A.E. Young, Joy Muthami, Mica Pitcher, Petar Antovski, Patricia Wamea, Robert Denis Murphy, Reihaneh Haghniaz, Andrew Schmidt, Samuel Clark, Ali Khademhosseini, Amir Sheikhi. Engineering hairy cellulose nanocrystals for chemotherapy drug capture. Materials Today Chemistry, 2022; 23: 100711 DOI: 10.1016/j.mtchem.2021.100711

https://researchnews.cc/news/10976/Engineered-nanomaterial-captures...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 9, 2022 at 11:42am

This long-lasting hydrogel could be used to replace damaged human tissues

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 8, 2022 at 12:29pm

How the Heart Changes with Exercise

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 8, 2022 at 12:25pm

 Researchershave discovered details of how proteins produced by oral epithelial cells protect humans against viruses entering the body through the mouth. They also found that oral bacteria can suppress the activity of these cells, increasing vulnerability to infection.

A family of proteins known as interferon lambdas produced by epithelial cells in the mouth serve to protect humans from viral infection, but the oral bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis reduces the production and effectiveness of those important frontline defenders.

Researchers found that certain pathogenic bacterial species, P. gingivalis, which cause periodontal disease, can completely suppress interferon production and severely enhance susceptibility to viral infection. These resident oral plaque bacteria play a key role in regulating anti-viral responses.

he mouth often is a gateway into the body for viruses that infect the gastrointestinal tract and lungs such as SARS-CoV-2, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex and cancer-causing viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV).

P. gingivalis, a common oral bacterium that causes periodontal disease, has been linked to numerous other diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Recent clinical studies have shown that immune suppression in patients with periodontitis can enhance susceptibility to HIV, herpes simplex and HPV.

Improved understanding of how interferons provide broad antiviral protection and activate antiviral genes to protect people from viruses, as well as how P. gingivalis compromises their protection, may lead researchers to clinical approaches to increase that protection. Research  has revealed connections between P. gingivalis and multiple other diseases and conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease and esophageal cancer.

  1. Carlos J. Rodriguez-Hernandez, Kevin J. Sokoloski, Kendall S. Stocke, Himabindu Dukka, Shunying Jin, Melissa A. Metzler, Konstantin Zaitsev, Boris Shpak, Daonan Shen, Daniel P. Miller, Maxim N. Artyomov, Richard J. Lamont, Juhi Bagaitkar. Microbiome-mediated incapacitation of interferon lambda production in the oral mucosa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2021; 118 (51): e2105170118 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2105170118

https://researchnews.cc/news/10948/Researchers-reveal-how-oral-bact...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 8, 2022 at 11:31am

Researchers used a technique called electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to identify previously unreported changes in the shape, or conformation, of the ABC exporter from a bacterium called Bacillus subtilis as it interacts with ATP.

They proposed that ATP power, in a series of complex steps, drives the transition between inward-facing and outward-facing conformations of the exporter. After binding the antibiotic, for example, the exporter "turns around" so it can expel its cargo from the cell.

This motion is driven by the transduction (conversion) of  into mechanical energy resulting from asymmetrical and sequential binding of two ATP molecules to different parts of the protein complex (the ATP binding cassettes). Asymmetrical binding thus drives conformational change.

To prove their theory, the researchers had to capture an image of the conformational change. So they turned to another resource, cryogenic electron microscopy, which enables measurement of atomic distances at cryogenic temperatures, below minus 320 degrees Fahrenheit.

The cryo-EM studies were conducted at the Pacific Northwest Center for Cryo-EM in Portland, Ore. In combination with an EPR spectroscopy method called DEER and molecular dynamics simulation, the studies revealed for the first time an ATP-loaded, inward-facing structure with two drug molecules bound asymmetrically.

This conformation suggests that drugs could be designed to prevent the bacterial exporter from turning around and expelling the antibiotic by "trapping" it in its inward-facing state.

Tarjani M. Thaker et al, Asymmetric drug binding in an ATP-loaded inward-facing state of an ABC transporter, Nature Chemical Biology (2021). DOI: 10.1038/s41589-021-00936-x

https://phys.org/news/2022-01-explores-bacteria-drug-resistant.html...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 8, 2022 at 11:29am

Study explores how bacteria become drug resistant

Researchers  have revealed recently more of the inner-workings of a two-stage "molecular motor" in the cell membrane that enables bacteria to become resistant to drugs.

Their findings, which were reported recently in the journal Nature Chemical Biology, will aid the search for inhibitors that can "turn off" the protein, called an ABC transporter. They also inform efforts to block the human version of the transporter that enables tumor cells to become resistant to chemotherapy.

Understanding how transporters work is essential to developing drugs to block them.

A primary vehicle for resistance is the multi-drug ABC (ATP-binding cassette) . ABC exporters use ATP hydrolysis—the release of chemical energy stored in ATP molecules—to traffic a wide variety of molecules across cell membranes.

ATP energy provides the power for ABC exporters to bind toxic chemicals, then turn around and expel them from the cell. In the case of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, however, this survival tactic can prove deadly to the human host they have invaded.

Part1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 7, 2022 at 12:57pm

“To the limits of our knowledge as humans, we’ve analysed and teste...

Engineer Michael Kaplan, who kicked off the planning of the James Webb Space Telescope in the 1990s, gives insight into how the wildly ambitious project came to be — and what comes next. (The Times of Israel | 19 min read)

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 7, 2022 at 12:55pm

Omicron struggles to infect the lungs

Mounting evidence from animal studies suggests that the Omicron coronavirus variant does not multiply readily in lung tissue. This offers a tantalizing explanation for early hints that it causes less-serious disease than does the Delta variant: Omicron might not infect cells deep in the lung as readily as those in the .... Experiments in lung cells and lung organoids suggest that this could be because of a protein called TMPRSS2, which protrudes from the surfaces of many cells in the lungs. Omicron struggles to infect cells through TMPRSS2. Scientists emphasize that Omicron still threatens to overload health systems because of its hyper-transmissibility.

 

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