Science, Art, Litt, Science based Art & Science Communication

Bioptical art, convergence and accommodation of the eyes,

  accuracy overlapping fields


Why Bioptical Art?


I'm desolate for the lack of interest from artists, art critics, who show disregard for my work.


I continue to publish, to make known research

that led to reproducible effects in the field fine art images.

  I hope that in time will be to the attention of specialists.

As a reference can be found on the Google domain that we have developed:


fine art visual sense images


Appear among the top positions of the over 200 million results

as a result of my sites:  ;


Certainly an area with many new, take courses from the chair.

This situation is not possible, can be substituted with, explanations using simplified images, with interlocutors who want to know how much news they present can be used in their art.

 Mention that the application, Bioptical Art,. may be keeping the style that belongs to each artist


Bioptical Art, offers the possibility to communicate by fine art

perceptions to which man has not yet developed skills.


 The Bioptical Art provides the opportunity to develop new skills in the visual sense.

Thus highlight the following effects:

See link  ;  3. Bioptical effects, definitions


Psychophysical mixture of colors, retinal cooperation, antispace in art, spatial harmony, bispace in art, psychic cycle, dynamics of space depth, spatial disharmony, hyperrealistic effects, hiatus in art, visual gradient, hyperspace in art, field binocular rivalry.



The modalities that I propose may be valorised by arousing a wider interest, if the fine art artists, by using traditional techniques and their talent, will create complex compositions with bioptical stimuli. On one hand, Bioptical Art will bring developments in research of psychology, neurology and psychiatry, and, on the other hand, it will give possibilities to the field of aesthetics to supplement chapters such as: disinterested interest, art as sensorial experience, art dependent knowledge and others.



Of course artists are reluctant when they are proposed theories about art

and even more when they claim that they are new.

Even theorists look with confidence and avoid theoretical the texts.

With this venture, I continue to write the texts that emerged from my research, simplifying them as much as possible


So write below about vision and about training

to perceive shapes are projected onto the entire spherical surface of the retina.


Binocular vision, normal reflex is commanded by coordination

  accommodate with vergence

Images formed on the spherical retina are inhibited.

Some people can easily charge (in limited extent).

I propose to extend these perceptions .



in B, use an optical device that occurs

in, the binocular vision.

  Mention that it is constructed so that fulfills the precision of a  binoculars with optical of performance

For definitions     accommodate ; vergence    I quote from Wikipedia


Accommodation (Acc) is the process by which the vertebrate eye changes optical power

 to maintain a clear image (focus) on an object as its distance varies.

A vergence is the simultaneous movement of both eyes in opposite directions to obtain or maintain single binocular vision.[1].

The two eyes converge to point to the same object

When a creature with binocular vision looks at an object, the eyes must rotate around a vertical axis so that the projection of the image is in the centre of the retina in both eyes. To look at an object closer by, the eyes rotate towards each other (convergence), while for an object farther away they rotate away from each other (divergence). Exaggerated convergence is called cross eyed viewing (focusing on the nose for example) . When looking into the distance, the eyes diverge until parallel, effectively fixating the same point at infinity (or very far away).

Vergence movements are closely connected to accommodation of the eye. Under normal conditions, changing the focus of the eyes to look at an object at a different distance will automatically cause vergence and accommodation.

Standards for binocular optical devices

provide permissible deviations for convergence in image space


  on, the vertical, 10 arcminutes

  on horizontal, 60  arcminutes  (plus or minus considering convergence,

which corresponds to accommodate)

(divergence from parallel axes, 20   arcminutes)


These are deviations which are necessary and

  bioptical device that respect them


Angle of convergence corresponding to accommodate

change with distance of the object viewed.

~ zero for distances of one hundred meters ... ~ 15 degrees

the the proximate distance of 0.25 meters


See in Google :

fine art binocular images


New techniques in fine arts by applying the research from Binocular Rivalry

 associated in a synergistic manner with Colour Fusion Helmholtz and with elements of Stereoscopy

I set rules for painting and sculpture forming Bioptical Art





Bioptical device


Binocular vision is an area that occurred many scientific publications.


For practicing as Bioptical Art I will refer to conditions which must satisfy

bioptical  device.

Precision coordination convergence with the eyes accommodation

and limits the differences from reflex act.


 Bioptical device.


I put drawings for execution the device.  See link . Drawings for execution bioptical device.

G2 mirror is adjustable with accuracy 1 arcminutes.

Precision with which a person regulates mirror is 2 arcminutes. 

Students from universities that teach Desing can execute easily Bioptical device.

 Device is placed on the head with a, mechanical system allowing its location in three positions 

 Bioptical  device



Images observed by  bioptical  device   early adjustment




  Intermediate files during setup  final adjustment



 Cross the square represents the optimal adapter, the observer,  

even if the observer as some differences of convergence


This situation is obtained, the place where convergence bioptical image corresponds to accommodate.

In this situation this place is the origin of image space.

Accuracy relative to the settlement of a form of settlement form

pair is within 10 arcminutes.

Distance between mirrors induces a difference of magnification, between pair forms below 3%, which is a maximum for the minimum distance of binocular observing.


 In observation with crossed eyes can not get this place because the origin of  image space  is an important difference   between convergence and accommodation. Can not get relaxed contemplation, way    can not be recommended in communication, by fine art.

 Crossed eyes is currently used   in   3D images without glasses;  see on Google



 Method for Model Making OSIM no. 67678 on 19.02.1974

My first publication 19.02.1974.

Rules which I have derived from formulas allows implementation

stereoscopic images in bioptical pictures together, with stimuli, binocular rivalry

 and along with colorful fusion stimuli Helmholtz

Through training is gain skills that the artist, to get confirmation  integration of spatial form

 through his artistic sensibility in, intervals of time the order of minutes.

We may consider it as  the free will elementary;

 free will correctly by the Divine attribute  of artistic sensitivity.



  L. Iliescu – Study D oil on cardboard – 90 X 65 cm



 Overlapping effects, the field 1 with the field 2 is seen only

on with one eye open and the other by the device;

be seen at the same time and also the fields components




   L. Iliescu, Study K, oil on cardboard, 65x90 cm


 Bioptical composition, with three fields




L. Iliescu – Study G –oil on canvas -74x100 cm

                           Desert phantom

             Colour fusion, Stereoscopy


link:  Additions to the instructions for obtaining, bioptical compositions

14. Some additions and resumptions on the bioptical composition


 Chapter     SB16…SB18 – from Initiation into bioptical art

Some people can perceive at once images clear by fovea

together with blurred images, projected on the retina in the vicinity of fovea.

To train the extension, simultaneity of perception  images that form the fovea and images,

the spherical surface of the retina, I propose the following test:


This test helps to train, changing vergence for another accommodation

than that commanded by reflex.


This combination allows to extend perceptual binocular space and

is trainings for vision  with crosseg eyes



There follows the description of several vision exercises which help in seizing bioptical effects. As shown beforehand, some persons spontaneously see these effects, while others require training. Some persons with normal binocular vision perceive only a part or none of the bioptical combinations.

Figure SB16.

On a table M we place two objects (O1) and (O2), for instance two plastic containers. They should not be identical but very similar in shape. In front of them an obstacle (P) made of cardboard is placed, so that only the upper part of those objects is visible from a distance of 2…4 meters. The person who undergoes the vision test should sit at the distance of 2…4 meters and close his or her eyes, while a screen E is placed in front of one of the eyes. Another person displaces one of the objects, for instance (O1), to a farther position. The tested person opens both eyes and sees objects O1 and O2 with one only eye.

When screen E is removed, the person should notice the modified position of object O1, hence notice the difference between vision with one eye and the binocular vision. The exercise is repeated for different positions of object (O1). If no difference is perceived, the person has no 3-D vision.



It shows the diagram of disinhibiting the double images present on the retinas, but of which we are not aware. One looks with both eyes at a pencil held in hand. At a distance of 4…5 meters a lamp with a shade is placed. One should see the pencil and the double image of the lamp. When repeating the test, one succeeds in seeing the duplicated image for a few seconds. After several exercises that image is maintained for more seconds.

Figure SB18.

When looking at the lamp, the image of the pencil should be duplicated. Some persons will feel a certain discomfort at the beginning of training, similar to that experienced at gymnastics.

Exercises are not recommended to children younger than the age of 12.

The exercises described for figures SB17 and SB18 are trainings to observe bioptical effects as a whole.

On the other side, these trainings result in the grasping of the space and other effects with the naked eye, without the bioptical device. Observations are possible only when fields (Fs) and (Fd) are arranged on a horizontal, as in reproductions DR3; DR9; DR10.



When looking at the lamp, the image of the pencil should be duplicated. Some persons will feel a certain discomfort at the beginning of training, similar to that experienced at gymnastics.

Exercises are not recommended to children younger than the age of 12.

The exercises described for figures SB17 and SB18 are trainings to observe bioptical effects as a whole.

On the other side, these trainings result in the grasping of the space and other effects with the naked eye, without the bioptical device. Observations are possible only when fields (Fs) and (Fd) are arranged on a horizontal, as in reproductions DR3; DR9; DR10.




Crossed-eye viewing

I also used the method subsequently, as the sole manner of communication by publications, although it involves adaptation difficulties



Dutour clearly describes binocular rivalry of two outlined colours (in 1760, 1763). Thus, Dutour describes the effects obtained by their fusion with the naked eyes, by eye convergence or divergence.

Paired-off drawings are used for research in the field of binocular rivalry, and for publications the convergent vision was chosen, with the mention: arranged for cross-eyed viewing.

This manner of observing was resumed also in the auto-stereogrammes invented by Christopher Tyler in 1990 (known as the Magic Eye)

I also used the Dutour method in my first publication:

Method for Model Making OSIM no. 67678 on 19.02.1974


Fig. 25 L.Iliescu; Scheme to form the habit of observation with
crossed eyes


 The sketch showing the crossed-eye viewing:

With the left eye (Og) the pencil tip is projected to the circle (Cd), and with the right eye (Od) the tip is projected to the circle (Cg), so that to notice three circles, concurrently with the appearance of another image between the two initial ones, which is the fusion image.


Fig 26 L. Iliescu; Bioptical painting

Stereo-binogram (arranged for crossed-eye viewing)


This is a drawing that can be diversified by beginners (I can provide certain explanations as the case may be ); in the case of this drawing, stereoscopic and transparency effects are obtained by fusion. 


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Replies to This Discussion

Thank you. I will try these and get back to you soon, sir.




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