Science, Art, Litt, Science based Art & Science Communication

Q: The old and the aged population's  immune system  struggles to respond to vaccination, and this is also the case for people with weakened immune systems, so it is difficult to protect the most vulnerable. The how can a corona virus vaccine protect them? 

Krishna: Scientists are trying to tackle this problem.

One thing to remember here is herd immunity protects these vulnerable people if majority of younger generation goes for vaccination.

The traditional vaccine may not work so well in older people because of an idea known as immune senescence, which posits that as people age, their immune systems weaken, resulting in poor vaccine response, especially to inactivated strains. So  some countries try a high-dose vaccine for seniors that could theoretically overcome this problem, no studies have yet been published on how effective it is. “The higher dose produces a higher level of antibodies, but we don’t really know what that correlates to.

The elderly should be given regular booster shots to tackle their  immune system problems. Most currently used vaccines are less immunogenic and effective in the elderly compared to younger adults. Potential strategies to improve their immunogenicity include higher antigen dose, alternative routes of administration, and the use of adjuvants, which were all implemented for influenza vaccines, and induce moderately higher antibody concentrations. Research on universal vaccines against influenza and S. pneumoniae is ongoing in order to overcome the limitations of the current strain-specific vaccines. Respiratory syncytial virus causes significant morbidity in the elderly. Novel vaccines against this and other pathogens, for instance bacterial nosocomial infections, have tremendous potential impact on health in old age and are intensively studied by many academic and commercial organizations.

Q: Why scientists could not go to the SUN?

Krishna: Sun is our closest star. Naturally we feel like visiting it. But we can’t!
It spews radiation, and even though its surface is the coolest part of the star, it burns at about 9,940°F, hot enough to incinerate just about any material. As such, there are no plans to send a manned mission in its direction anytime soon.
Moreover, the technology in our current space suits really isn't designed to withstand deep space.
How about using space shuttles? Someone could get much closer to our star using them. If the ship's reinforced carbon-carbon heat shield is designed to withstand temperatures of up to 4,700° to ensure that the spacecraft and its passengers can survive the friction heat generated when it reenters the atmosphere from orbit. If the shield wrapped the entire shuttle, according to experts, astronauts could fly to within 1.3 million miles of the sun. But the integrity of the shield degrades rapidly above 4,700°, and the cockpit would begin to cook. Once that temperature is crossed, the shields would fail altogether, and the vehicle would combust in less than a minute.
The constant exposure to cosmic radiation during the voyage would most likely prove fatal before the astronauts crossed that temperature.
But can human beings give up just like that? NO! We keep trying like this …

Q: Which is major subject of MSc. Clinical Research? And which subject can we apply in PhD?

Krishna: Clinical research is a vast subject. How can we just name one or two?

Restless Leg Syndrome, Migraine, Various diets, Gout, Sleep, Carpel tunnel syndrome, Aspirin, Atrial Fibrillation, Hypothiroidism, Ace inhibitors, are the top trending ones in 2018 in the US.

But there are hundreds more.

Major subjects differ from universities to universities, research institutes to research institutes. You can choose any subject of your interest and find a relevant RI or university.

You have to do lots of searching and research to find a suitable one.

These sites might help you:

Research Topics | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Research Guides: Clinical Laboratory Science: Choosing a Research T...

Q: Why do you believe science more than anything in the world, and which moment dragged your life into science? What emotional connection do you have with science?

Krishna: Believe? NO!

I trust science more than anything else in this world. Because … I wrote on it and it is too big to add here. Standing Up For Science : Showing Reasons Why Science Should Be Tru...

Which moment dragged me into science?

The moment I was a zygote! It happened because of science (principles that govern this universe and everything in it). It happens to everybody because of science!

Okay, I understood your question, which moment I fell in love with science?

The moment I started studying it. It fascinated me like no other subject.

The more I learned, the more it had me in its grip and there is no escape for me now.

What emotional connection do I have with science?

In fact science helped me get rid of my emotions! The moment I entered my lab, I was told to leave my emotions at the door and I obliged.

That ‘s why I succeeded like I did!

It is true I love science. But not emotionally involved with it so it doesn’t make me blind, deaf, mute or mindless.

It is something like a drop of water on a lotus leaf, stay with it, deal with it but not attached to it.

Q: What is site directed mutagenesis? Why is this method such a powerful research tool?

Krishna: Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) is a method to create specific, targeted changes in double stranded plasmid DNA. There are many reasons in research to make specific DNA alterations (insertions, deletions and substitutions):
  • To study changes in protein activity that occur as a result of the DNA manipulation.
  • To select or screen for mutations (at the DNA, RNA or protein level) that have a desired property
  • To introduce or remove restriction endonuclease sites or tags

It is an useful tool in protein engineering. Site-directed mutagenesis is one of the most important laboratory techniques for creating DNA libraries by introducing mutations into DNA sequences.

It is used both as an investigative tool and in commercial applications

Q: Which of the previous scientists or researchers do you think deserve to be reborn?

Krishna: None!

First, there is no genuine evidence of rebirth and science doesn’t accept anything without high grade evidence. So there is no chance of anybody being reborn, leave alone scientists.

Second, even if you imagine about a scientist ‘s rebirth, he won’t be the same person, with the same brain and mental activity. So, s/he won’t be of any real use.

Third, “deserve’’ is just a perception. Perceptions need not be correct.

Fourth, several other brilliant brains can replace the places left by the best brains. So we need not worry about those brains that left this physical world. Look for a new brain, new thoughts and creativity.

Q: How can I contribute to science as an ordinary person?

Krishna: There are two things to consider here:

Do you really want to contribute directly to the field of science? Then you can become a citizen scientist.

Citizen science - Wikipedia

Citizen Science Association

If you want to contribute in other ways, develop a scientific temper. Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession.

Anybody can become a scientist if he develops a scientific mind.

These articles will help you:

Critical Thinking

Scientific Thinking

The right way to boost your intelligence and become insanely creati...

Science's rules are unyielding, they will not be bent in any way fo...


Please follow the space Science Communication on Quora and this network SCI-ART LAB

Krishna: This is a preconceived notion. If you have a preconceived notion, it hampers your thought process and you refuse to consider anything else brought before you.

Scientists and unintelligence? Oxymoronic!

I agree with the second part, though.

People say science cannot solve all the problems and doesn't answer all the questions human minds pose. True! But think about this: This universe started with a Big Bang ( according to one theory - which is not yet proved!) some 14 Billion years ago. But science is just a few hundred years old.

The universe in which we find ourselves is about 14,000,000,000 years old, planet Earth is about 5,000,000,000 years old, the species Homo sapiens, to which we belong, 300,000 years old, and modern science a mere 500 years old ( all approximate, not exact years) .

Science ( the process with which we try to study and understand this universe) is still in its infancy. It has to learn a lot, study a lot, think a lot, experiment a lot and then only it can come up with all the answers we are seeking right now. How can you expect a child to solve all the problems of his ancestors? And answer the questions posed by his great, great, great, great grand fathers? Is it appropriate to even expect such a thing? I don't think so.

There is science ( the laws that govern this universe) every millimeter and Angstrom of this universe. And the universe is unimaginably vast! But the scientists are so few! How can the limited number of scientists read the language this universe is written in such a less time?

Moreover, there are more pressing problems like saving lives, more food production for the ever increasing population. We can’t waste our time on less important ones. But we get ridiculed for our choices of problems!

We should be amazed at how we have been able to get so far in understanding the things in this universe despite our inadequacies! Science is doing its best with the limited resources it has to both answer the questions and solve the problems. As the time goes by, I am pretty sure, it will succeed more and more. Please have patience! Give science some time.

According to scientists, there are many, many phenomena that science can’t currently explain for purely practical reasons: they’re too difficult or dangerous or expensive or time-consuming to investigate. But there is no genuine phenomenon we know of which can’t be explained in principle by science.

When these obstacles are removed, science can slowly move forward and explain the things you think is beyond science now.

And let me assure you when science answers these Qs, they will not be silly stories but universe-shivering true facts.

A slow, steady and authentic process is better than untested and hasty explanations that don't make any sense.

Science will answer your questions and solve your problems too!

Q: What causes hiccups?

Krishna: Hiccups are bursts of inspiratory (breathing in) activity. The muscles we use when we take in a breath are the intercostal muscles situated between the ribs, and the diaphragm — a sheet of muscle below the lungs. A hiccup is an involuntary contraction of the diaphragm, which is followed by the sudden closure of your vocal cords – this produces the characteristic hiccup sound.

Hiccups are very common and most people will have hiccups at some time. Most simple cases of hiccups come after eating or drinking too much or too quickly. The stomach, which is situated right below the diaphragm, becomes distended and irritates it. This will cause the diaphragm to contract, as it does when we breathe in.

Carbonated fizzy drinks can cause hiccups, and alcohol is another common cause of hiccups. Excess smoking may also cause hiccups. Hot and spicy food, such as curry, may trigger hiccups.

Sometimes hiccups will occur because of a disturbance to the nerve pathways from the brain to the muscles involved. This explains why hiccups may occur with temperature changes or emotional situations. It is also the reason that a sudden shock can sometimes abolish an attack.

Persistent hiccups may signify problems in the brain (such as stroke, tumours, infections or multiple sclerosis), spinal cord or any of the structures around the diaphragm or chest wall. So chronic hiccups that last days, months or even years, may indicate serious underlying disease and should be investigated.

Everyone has their own pet remedy for curing hiccups. Simply holding your breath is often effective for short-term bouts of hiccups, but usually they will go away of their own accord. Some people find that touching or gently lifting their uvula (the dangly structure at the back of the throat) with a cotton bud or similar will stop a bout of hiccups, but be aware that this will stimulate the gag reflex.

Other methods include drinking ice cold water, swallowing something sweet like a spoonful of sugar, or sitting down, while leaning forward and pulling your knees up to compress your chest.

If you have hiccups that have gone on for 2 days or longer, or are having recurrent bouts of hiccups, you should see a doctor to find out if there is an underlying cause that needs treating.

If they stay for more than two days, please consult a qualified medical doctor.

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