Science, Art, Litt, Science based Art & Science Communication


Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 17
Latest Activity: 18 hours ago


     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 452 articles posted here. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs peopel asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28



Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53


part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...


BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  thier children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis


o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 


b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here:

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

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Discussion Forum

Is research breaking the speed of light correct? Yes, in an emergency situation for scientists.

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Feb 19. 1 Reply

Several people asked me this question in the past one month: Wuhan coronavirus Wuhan coronavirus research results are  being distributed on preprint servers like bioRxiv, which are not peer reviewed.…Continue

Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them - Part 168

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Feb 19. 1 Reply

Q: Why doesn’t medical science have medicine without side effects? Is it really success or failure of medical science? Krishna: You really will have to understand science deeply to analyse and…Continue

Sport Science - your best bet to beat competition when used in a correct and legal way

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Feb 19. 5 Replies

How can you achieve these targets in sport: "Faster, Higher, Stronger"?Very often people in this part of the world wonder why some developed countries do very well in Olympics and other International…Continue

How God men and other people walk on fire without getting burnt

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Feb 18. 1 Reply

Some people walk on fire without getting burnt. How do they do it?  Are there any miracles involved?No, is the answer. It just is plain science. Let me explain. We need to closely look at…Continue

Comment Wall


You need to be a member of Science Simplified! to add comments!

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 20 hours ago

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 21 hours ago

Scientists 'film' a quantum measurement. Measuring a quantum system causes it to change—one of the strange but fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics. Researchers now have now been able to demonstrate how this change happens.


Scientists discovered entirely new class of RNA caps in bacteria and described the function of 'alarmones' and their mechanism of function.


Chemists learn how to detect phenols in smoked food samples using vitamin B4


Mosaic evolution - where subsets of traits evolve independently of others - painted lorikeets a rainbow of colour ...


Researchers turn bacterial cell into biological computer: Currently, the computer identifies and reports on toxic and other materials. Next up: the ability to warn about hemorrhaging in the human body.


Cannibalism on rise among polar bears, say Russian scientists: Cases of polar bears killing and eating each other are on the rise in the Arctic as melting ice and human activity erode their habitat.


Sugary drinks a sour choice for adults trying to maintain normal cholesterol levels

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

Hundreds of bird species in India are in decline, according to the country’s first major report on the state of bird populations. Birds of prey and waterbirds seem to have been hit particularly hard owing to habitat destruction, hunting and the pet trade.

But it’s not all bad news. Species such as the house sparrow seem to be doing better than previously thought.

The State of India’s Birds report, released on 17 February, relied on more than 10 million observations from birdwatchers recorded in the online repository of worldwide bird sightings, eBird.

The report’s authors — researchers from 10 government and non-profit research and conservation groups — used eBird data to analyse long-term trends for 261 bird species. That is, the proportional change in the frequency of reported sightings of since 1993. They found that more than half of those species have declined since 2000. The group also looked at the current annual trends in 146 species; nearly 80% have declined in the past 5 years.

The researchers classified 101 species as of high conservation concern, and another 319 species as of moderate conservation concern, on the basis of declines in their abundance and range, and their status on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

Arms race between bacteria and viruses: New light

A new study reveals how  can be harmful for their hosts, and why they are not found in all bacteria. 

The existing CRISPR anti-viral immunity was often a disadvantage to the bacterium when infected by certain viruses.

CRISPR has become well known for its repurposing as a tool for precise genetic engineering. However, CRISPR systems (segments of DNA) naturally occur in many bacteria and have the important function of providing bacteria with immunity against viruses or foreign DNA.

This triggered a major question as to whether autominnunity is important in other bacterial pathogens. 

 Triggering the powerful CRISPR defence systems is risky for a bacterium. "Importantly, this may help answer a long-standing question of why these defence systems are absent in 60 per cent of bacteria."

For example, Staphylococcus aureus pathogens that often take up extra genes to become multidrug resistant, seldom have CRISPR defence. An example of this is MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) an infection often occurring in people who have been in hospitals or other healthcare settings like residential care homes, which has become resistant to many of the antibiotics used to treat ordinary staph infections. It seldom has CRISPR defence.

More information: Clare Rollie et al, Targeting of temperate phages drives loss of type I CRISPR–Cas systems, Nature (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-1936-2

Journal information: Nature 

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

Henneguya salminicola: Microscopic parasite has no mitochondrial DNA

An international team of researchers has found a multicellular animal with no mitochondrial DNA, making it the only known animal to exist without the need to breathe oxygen. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes their study of Henneguya salminicola, a microscopic, parasitic member of the group Myxozoa and its unique physiology.

One of the common characteristics of all multicellular animals on Earth is —the process by which oxygen is used to generate —the fuel used to power . The process takes place in mitochondria, which has both its own genome and the main genome found in the rest of the body's cells. But now, there is a known exception: Henneguya salminicola.

H. salminicola is a microscopic parasite that infects salmon. When the host dies, spores are released that are consumed by worms, which can also serve as hosts for the parasite. When salmon eat the worms, they become infected as the parasite moves into their muscles. They can be seen by fishermen as white, oozing bubbles, which is why salmon with H. salminicola infections are sometimes said to have tapioca disease.

In their work, the researchers sequenced the DNA of H. salminicola tissue and found no mitochondrial DNA at all. Believing they had made an error, the team repeated their work and once again found no sign of mitochondrial DNA. Confused, they sequenced the DNA of close relatives of H. salminicola and found evidence of the expected mitochondrial genomes. H. salminicola did have structures that resembled mitochondria but they were not capable of producing the enzymes needed for respiration, a finding that suggested the creature was capable of surviving without oxygen—a first. The presence of structures that resemble mitochondrial DNA suggests that the tiny  have undergone a process of de-evolution. In addition to losing the apparatus to create ATP, they also have lost tissue, nerve cells and muscles.

The researchers did not find any other mechanism for producing the fuel cells in H. salminicola would need to survive, but suggest they likely steal energy from their host using some type of proteins.

More information: Dayana Yahalomi et al. A cnidarian parasite of salmon (Myxozoa: Henneguya) lacks a mitochondrial genome, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2020). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1909907117

Press release

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

 new type of battery combines negative capacitance and negative resistance within the same cell, allowing the cell to self-charge without losing energy!


Synthesizing a superatom (a name given to a cluster of atoms that seem to exhibit properties similar to elemental atoms) : Opening doors to their use as substitutes for elemental atoms


Scientists document striking changes in Pacific Arctic ecosystems because of warmer ocean water.


Gene loss more important in animal kingdom evolution than previously thought


The genetic secret of night vision


The do's and don'ts of monitoring many wildlife species at once


How resident microbes restructure body chemistry

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

Line of defense: Scientists report surprising evolutionary shift in snakes

In the animal kingdom, survival essentially boils down to eat or be eaten. How organisms accomplish the former and avoid the latter reveals a clever array of defense mechanisms. Maybe you can outrun your prey. Perhaps you sport an undetectable disguise. Or maybe you develop a death-defying resistance to your prey's heart-stopping defensive chemicals that you can store in your own body to protect you from predators.

Species of the Rhabdophis genus. Commonly called "keelbacks" and found primarily in southeast Asia, the snakes sport glands in their skin, sometimes just around the neck, where they store bufadienolides, a class of lethal steroids they get from toads, their toxic prey of choice.

"These snakes bend their necks in a defensive posture that surprises unlucky predators with a mouthful of toxins"."Scientists once thought these snakes produced their own toxins, but learned, instead, they obtain it from their food—namely, toads."

In a surprising twist, the researchers discovered not all members of the genus derive their defensive toxin from the same source. A species group of the snakes, found in western China and Japan, shifted its primary diet from frogs (including toads) to earthworms.

The earthworms don't produce the toxins; instead, the snakes also snack on firefly larvae, which produce the same class of toxins as the toads. Their findings appear in the Feb. 24, 2020, early online issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. This is the first documented case of a vertebrate predator switching from a vertebrate prey to an invertebrate prey for the selective advantage of getting the same chemical class of defensive toxin.

More information: Tatsuya Yoshida el al., "Dramatic dietary shift maintains sequestered toxins in chemically defended snakes," PNAS (2020).
Provided by Utah State University 
Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Tuesday

Study on artificial and biological neural networks found that the use of contrived experimental manipulations with the hope of uncovering simple rules or representations is unlikely to yield models that can be effectively applied to the real world.

Models based on artificial neural networks do not learn rules or representations of the world around them that are easy for humans to interpret. On the contrary, they typically use local computations to analyze different aspects of data in a high-dimensional parameter space.


When coronavirus is not alone: Team of complexity scientists present 'meme' model for multiple diseases

The interplay of diseases is the norm rather than the exception - the presence of even one more contagion in the population can dramatically shift the dynamics from simple to complex.


New plant based eco-glue: just a single drop of the eco-glue has enough strength to hold up to 90 kg weight, but can still be easily removed by the touch of a finger. And it 's cheap!


Antibiotics May Compromise Manure's Carbon-Fixing Effects

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Monday

Microbes in our ancestors’ stomachs helped them adapt to new areas


Different shades of hypnobirthing: the techniques don’t work for everyone.


How gut bacteria make broccoli a superfood

Scientists reveal the pathway used by one gut microbe to transform vegetable components into anti-cancer compounds.
Newer Vaccine Technologies Deployed to Develop COVID-19 Shot
Researchers look to messenger RNA encased in nanoparticles, DNA plasmids, molecular clamps, and other approaches as they rush to design a vaccine against the new coronavirus.

How to build a genome

A powerful set of molecular tools helps synthetic biologists to assemble DNA of different sizes, from the gene to the chromosome scale.
Chinese Scientists Sequence Genome Of COVID-19 A research group in China has sequenced the genome of the COVID-19 virus and reported that the virus most likely originated from bats.
Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Saturday

Study finds microbes can alter an environment dramatically before dying out


How COVID-19 Is Spread: Scientists’ latest understanding of the facts, the suspicions, and the discounted rumors of SARS-CoV-2’s transmission from person to person

ALPHA collaboration reports first measurements of certain quantum effects in antimatter


Researchers combine lasers and terahertz waves in camera that sees 'unseen' detail interior of solid objects


Fundamental symmetry tested using antihydrogen

The breaking of a property of nature called charge–parity–time symmetry might explain the observed lack of antimatter in the Universe. Scientists have now hunted for such symmetry breaking using the antimatter atom antihydrogen.
The hunt for a coronavirus cure is showing how science can change for the better

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