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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 20 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

         The Reach of Scientific Research From Labs to Laymen

The aim of science is not only to open a door to infinite knowledge and                                     wisdom but to set a limit to infinite error.

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

“Science is not a subject you studied in school. It’s life. We 're brought into existence by it!"

 Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......306

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  their children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

 A+. sci-com-what-makes-a-story-news-worthy-in-science

 B+. is-a-perfect-language-important-in-writing-science-stories

C+. sci-com-how-much-entertainment-is-too-much-while-communicating-sc

D+. sci-com-why-can-t-everybody-understand-science-in-the-same-way

E+. how-to-successfully-negotiate-the-science-communication-maze

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find scientific research  reports posted on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

Bio-chemistry: Scientists uncover a multibillion-year epic written into the chemistry of life

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 21 hours ago. 0 Replies

The origin of life on Earth has long been a mystery that has eluded scientists. A key question is how much of the history of life on Earth is lost to time. It is quite common for a single species to…Continue

Climate change is moving tree populations away from the soil fungi that sustain them

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Tuesday. 1 Reply

As our planet warms, many species are shifting to different locations as their historical habitats become inhospitable. Trees are no exception—many species' normal ranges are no longer conducive to…Continue

Feeling others' 'energy'- what does it mean?!

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Monday. 1 Reply

Q: A person in another country says I feel your energy, it’s like you’re next to me. What does this mean?Krishna: You will get only science based answers here, not the type supporting some people’s…Continue

Forensic science: How Microbial fingerprints can help solve a crime

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Monday. 0 Replies

Image source: …Continue

Comment Wall

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You need to be a member of Science Simplified! to add comments!

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 20 hours ago

This (Edible) Mushroom Could Kill You

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 20 hours ago

Debunking "Healthy" TikTok DESSERTS

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 21 hours ago

In a key result, the team then tested the susceptibility of bacteria treated with ciprofloxacin over a series of days to determine how quickly resistance to the antibiotic was developing, either with or without OXF-077. They found that the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin was significantly suppressed in bacteria treated with OXF-077, compared to those not treated with OXF-077.

This is the first study to demonstrate that an inhibitor of the SOS response can suppress the evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Moreover, when resistant bacteria previously exposed to ciprofloxacin were treated with OXF-077, it restored their sensitivity to the antibiotic to the same level as bacteria that had not developed resistance.

 Jacob D. Bradbury et al, Development of an inhibitor of the mutagenic SOS response that suppresses the evolution of quinolone antibiotic resistance, Chemical Science (2024). DOI: 10.1039/D4SC00995A

Part 2

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 21 hours ago

New molecule found to suppress bacterial antibiotic resistance evolution

Researchers have developed a new small molecule that can suppress the evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and make resistant bacteria more susceptible to antibiotics. The paper, "Development of an inhibitor of the mutagenic SOS response that suppresses the evolution of quinolone antibiotic resistance," has been published in the journal Chemical Science.

The global rise in antibiotic-resistant bacteria is one of the top global public health and development threats, with many common infections becoming increasingly difficult to treat. It is estimated that drug-resistant bacteria are already directly responsible for around 1.27 million global deaths each year and contribute to a further 4.95 million deaths. Without the rapid development of new antibiotics and antimicrobials, this figure is set to rise significantly.

A new study led by researchers at the Ineos Oxford Institute for antimicrobial research (IOI) and the Department of Pharmacology at Oxford University offers hope in the discovery of a small molecule that works alongside antibiotics to suppress the evolution of drug-resistance in bacteria.

One of the ways that bacteria become resistant to antibiotics is due to new mutations in their genetic code. Some antibiotics (such as fluoroquinolones) work by damaging bacterial DNA, causing the cells to die. However, this DNA damage can trigger a process known as the "SOS response" in the affected bacteria.

The SOS response repairs the damaged DNA in bacteria and increases the rate of genetic mutations, which can accelerate the development of resistance to the antibiotics. In the new study, the Oxford scientists identified a molecule capable of suppressing the SOS response, ultimately increasing the effectiveness of antibiotics against these bacteria.

The researchers studied a series of molecules previously reported to increase the sensitivity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics, and to prevent the MRSA SOS response. MRSA is a type of bacteria that usually lives harmlessly on the skin. But if it gets inside the body, it can cause a serious infection that needs immediate treatment with antibiotics. MRSA is resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins.

Researchers modified the structure of different parts of the molecule and tested their action against MRSA when given with ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic. This identified the most potent SOS inhibitor molecule reported to-date, called OXF-077. When combined with a range of antibiotics from different classes, OXF-077 made these more effective in preventing the visible growth of MRSA bacteria.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 21 hours ago

The digital touchscreens of the future could let you 'feel' items through your phone

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 22 hours ago

Even the scientists who made the original, possible detection of planet HD 26965 b—almost immediately compared to the fictional Vulcan—cautioned that it could turn out to be messy stellar jitters masquerading as a planet. They reported evidence of a "super-Earth"—larger than Earth, smaller than Neptune—in a 42-day orbit around a sun-like star about 16 light-years away. The new analysis, using high-precision radial velocity measurements not yet available in 2018, confirms that caution about the possible discovery was justified.

The bad news for "Star Trek" fans comes from an instrument known as NEID, a recent addition to the complex of telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory. NEID, like other radial velocity instruments, relies on the Doppler effect: shifts in the light spectrum of a star that reveal its wobbling motions. In this case, parsing out the supposed planet signal at various wavelengths of light, emitted from different levels of the star's outer shell (photosphere), revealed significant differences between individual wavelength measurements—their Doppler shifts—and the total signal when they were all combined.

That means, in all likelihood, that the planet signal is really the flickering of something on the star's surface that coincides with a 42-day rotation—perhaps the roiling of hotter and cooler layers beneath the star's surface, called convection, combined with stellar surface features such as spots and "plages," which are bright, active regions. Both can alter a star's radial velocity signals.

The demonstration of such finely tuned radial velocity measurements holds out the promise of making sharper observational distinctions between actual planets and the shakes and rattles on surfaces of distant stars.

Abigail Burrows et al, The Death of Vulcan: NEID Reveals That the Planet Candidate Orbiting HD 26965 Is Stellar Activity*, The Astronomical Journal (2024). DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/ad34d5

Part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 22 hours ago

The death of Vulcan: Study reveals planet is actually an astronomical illusion caused by stellar activity

A planet thought to orbit the star 40 Eridani A—host to Mr. Spock's fictional home planet, Vulcan, in the "Star Trek" universe—is really a kind of astronomical illusion caused by the pulses and jitters of the star itself, a new study shows.

A science team led by astronomer Abigail Burrows of Dartmouth College, and previously of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has published a paper describing the new result, titled "The death of Vulcan: NEID reveals the planet candidate orbiting HD 26965 is stellar activity," in The Astronomical Journal. (Note: HD 26965 is an alternate designation for the star 40 Eridani A.)

The possible detection of a planet orbiting a star that Star Trek made famous drew excitement and plenty of attention when it was announced in 2018. Only five years later, the planet appeared to be on shaky ground when other researchers questioned whether it was there at all.

Now, precision measurements using a NASA-NSF instrument, installed a few years ago atop Kitt Peak in Arizona, seem to have returned the planet Vulcan even more definitively to the realm of science fiction.

Two methods for detecting exoplanets—planets orbiting other stars—dominate all others in the continuing search for strange new worlds. The transit method, watching for the tiny dip in starlight as a planet crosses the face of its star, is responsible for the vast majority of detections. But the "radial velocity" method also has racked up a healthy share of exoplanet discoveries.

This method is especially important for systems with planets that don't, from Earth's point of view, cross the faces of their stars. By tracking subtle shifts in starlight, scientists can measure "wobbles" in the star itself, as the gravity of an orbiting planet tugs it one way, then another. For very large planets, the radial velocity signal mostly leads to unambiguous planet detections. But not-so-large planets can be problematic.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 22 hours ago

Landslides occur due to due to failure of stability of slopes. The following factors cause failure of slopes.

Clay and shale beds are weak materials and tend to get slided particularly in the presence of water.

Groundwater and precipitation – groundwater conditions of the area depends on the geological and hydrological parameters, storage, recharge, , duration of precipitation , intensity of rainfall, lithological characteristics of the area and gradient of slope etc. In general slope stability is adversely affected by rise in groundwater table, resulting in pore water pressure . The shearing resistance of the mineral grains reduces and then this leads to landslides.

Insitu stresses – the stress within the slope rock is generated when load is placed at top of the slope. This may be due to accumulation of rain or snow water or human activities such as stock piling of ore deposits, waste deposits, mine tailings, buildings and removal of natural rocks for construction or foundation works.

Textures – anisotrophy in fabric is the weakest internal structure of a rock and it facilitates movement of the rock mass. Uniform or medium grained mineral content of rock bears a greater strength than that borne by rocks of unequal grains.

Weak planes- Schistocity, slaty structure and lamination are weak points . It has been observed that massive slides tales place in sedimentary rocks inter bedded with limestones and shales.

Weathering weakens the physical and chemical bonding in rocks and this leads to failure of mass even in hard rocks.

Structural features

Bedding planes, fractures, joints, faults , fissures and schistocity will have influence on downward slope of rock mass. In nature no rock mass is truly continuous. It will be broken by fracture, joints, bedding planes, dykes, and veins. These discontinuities will lead to instability of strata.

Seismic activity – travel of elastic waves released during an earthquake in the ground increase the shear stress in the slope and consequently decrease volume open spaces within the rock material there by increasing the pressure of water in void space and leads to failure of rock mass.

Part 3

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 22 hours ago

So what would it take to warn people of a coming landslide? You would need a prediction for earthquakes and rainfall, in addition to a perfect knowledge of the slope-forming geomaterial.

Under our feet, geomaterials may include multiple, entangled layers of various kinds of rocks and particulate materials, such as sand, silt and clays. Their strength varies from a factor of one to 1,000, and their spatial distribution dictates where the slope is likely to fail.

To accurately assess the stability of the slope, a three-dimensional mapping of these materials and their strengths is needed. No sensor can provide this information, so geologists and geotechnical engineers must deal with partial information obtained at a few selected locations and extrapolate this data to the rest of the slope.

The weakest link of the chain—such as an existing fracture in a rock mass—is easily missed. This is an inevitable source of uncertainty when trying to predict how much material might slip. We do know that the larger the volume of a landslide, the farther its runout distance. But it's hard to gauge the exact size of a landslide, making predictions of runout distances and safe zones uncertain. The question of "when will a landslide will occur" is also uncertain. Mechanical analysis enables us to estimate the vulnerability of a slope in a particular scenario, including earthquake magnitude and distribution of groundwater. But predicting if and when these triggers will happen is as "easy" as predicting the weather and seismic activity—a difficult task. Unfortunately, all the money in the world can't buy accurate landslide predictions—especially in remote parts of the world.

https://theconversation.com/what-causes-landslides-can-we-predict-t...

Part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 22 hours ago

What causes landslides? 

Landslides happen when the pull from gravity exceeds the strength of the geomaterial forming the slope of a hill or mountain. Geomaterials can be as varied as rocks, sand, silt and clays.

Then, part of this slope starts sliding downhill. Depending on where the slope fails, the material sliding down can be just a few cubic meters or a few million cubic meters in volume.

Why do slopes fail? Most natural landslides are triggered by earthquakes or rainfall, or a combination of both.

Earthquakes shake the ground, stress it and weaken it over time. Rainwater can seep through the ground and soak it—the ground is often porous like a sponge—and add weight to the slope. This is why PNG is so prone to landslides, as it sits on an active fault and is subjected to heavy rainfalls.

Another adverse effect of water is erosion: the constant action of waves undercuts coastal slopes, causing them to fail. Groundwater can also dissolve rocks within slopes.

Humans can (and do) cause landslides in several ways, too. For example, deforestation has a negative impact on slope stability, as tree roots naturally reinforce the ground and drain water out. Also, mine blasts produce small earthquake-like ground vibrations that shake slopes nearby.

It's very difficult to predict and mitigate landslide risk effectively.

Part 1

 

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