SCI-ART LAB

Science, Art, Litt, Science based Art & Science Communication

                                                                  Interactive science series

Q: What training should a student get before joining Ph.D.?

Krishna: If a student gets comprehensive training  in research literature search, designing experiments, interpreting results and writing manuscripts for publications, scientific presentations, communication/presentation skills it would become very easy to conduct research, publish/present papers and get a Ph.D. in the shortest possible time.

However, I never received any training, most of my colleagues too never received any formal training, we found our own ways and completed our work with our own experiences learnt along the way. 

Q: Why are smaller sample sizes not good for research?

Krishna: Consider this example: You take 9 samples. 5 samples give one result  and 4 give the opposite one. Based on this observation if you say the majority (5) is correct, that would become erroneous because if you take 10 samples and  if the 10th one shows the the second set results, that becomes half- half. So smaller samples show more errors. You cannot come to correct conclusions based on them.

As you increase the sample size ( like  9000), the errors become less significant and show more appropriate results.  The use of small sample sizes could contain a skewed sample that shows stronger effects. Good results depend on seeing large-scale patterns across thousands of studies and meta-analyses.

Q: How can research results made reliable and scientists accountable?

Krishna: Experts say these things make research more valid - better trained scientists, more funding, more supervision and regulatory oversight, better control or transparency on conflicts of interest. 

Q:Why do people publish their papers in international conferences? What is the significance and importance of doing this?  

Krishna: You will get more coverage and recognition when you present  papers in international conferences. It also denotes that your paper is of high standard because only very good papers are selected for international conferences.

You will receive instant critical feed back from experts in the field which makes you improve yourself.

You will upgrade your presentation skills and discussion dialogues.

More significantly, you are standing up for your science before the international media.

Q: What are predatory journals? 

Krishna: The predatory journals are not genuine. They charge the researchers, accept manuscripts without reviewing them, print them without editing them, and otherwise make a mockery of the scientific literature by pumping out low-quality work.

You will find the list here: http://beallslist.weebly.com/

Q: Can one cite a blog post in a Ph.D. thesis?

Krishna: You may do that in art subjects, but in science a blog post is not treated as a reliable source of information because blogs are not peer reviewed, things mentioned in them need not be verified and you can’t tell for sure whether they are based on authentic data or not unless the authors give good citations. People can publish anything they want in them - even their opinions.

If I am reviewing a Ph.D. thesis in my subject, I would definitely object to blog post citations if they are used in it.

Q: Can scientific research be a hobby? I am fascinated by black holes and the theory of wormholes, but have no interest in pursuing theoretical physics as a career. Can I make any significant contributions to science if I am doing it as a hobby?  

Krishna: Even if you start it as a hobby, it becomes a passion after some time. The more deep you go into it, the more it sucks you to its bottom. There is no escape if your interest and curiosity are genuine. It will have you in its grip all the time.

Well, that is my experience!

Q: Can one finish Ph.D. in 2 years?

Krishna: Extremely difficult especially in science subjects. You or your supervisor or the circumstances must be extraordinary to complete your research work in just two years in today’s world.

Q: Can a fresher with no research papers get admission to an MS in CS?

Krishna: Yes. Most of the students - at least from India - who join MS in Computer Science  don’t have any research papers.

Q: Is peer-review perfect?

Krishna: No! Peer-review is only as valuable as the expertise of the “peers” doing the “review”. That is why people still publish peer-reviewed papers  in alternative medicine and boast their papers are of good quality and insist that they be trusted. 

Q: How can a student of B.Sc. Physics write a research paper?

Krishna: You can write a research paper if you conducted original research and got results that are significant. If you think you have enough knowledge and confidence to do that go ahead by taking the help of your professors.

You can get some training in scientific research by joining a research group and doing some voluntary work. Also read all the available literature in the field to know how to proceed.

Q: Should the motivational letter for pursuing a PhD be written by the students or the professors?

Krishna: Unless you yourself are not motivated fully, other people can’t help you much. It should come from within first. The letters written by others can only augment your own motivation.

Q: What is the difference between Post Graduate research and a Ph.D.?

Krishna: Post graduate research can vary from one country to another. In India you don't have to go through this programme in several universities. You can directly go to Ph.D. after writing and getting through a qualifying exam or based on your PG track record.

In some universities the Master of Philosophy (MPhil) has to be done before going for a full fledged Ph.D which aims to expand knowledge beyond the undergraduate honours or postgraduate level, culminating in a research thesis.

In some countries like the US to enter into a PhD program students generally must have some form of prerequisite study beyond their basic graduate qualification. This may be a Master’s coursework program, which acts as a qualifier for entry. Postgraduate research ultimately represents an apprenticeship in the field of research. The objective of postgraduate research is not necessarily to make a breakthrough invention or, indeed, a major scientific discovery. It is, rather, a mechanism by which graduate students learn how to undertake a systematic investigation, founded upon the work built by peers in the field, and then to extend the current state of knowledge. In the context of assessing a postgraduate research program, it is generally the systematic process of research and investigation that is given more attention than the level to which knowledge is extended. Most Master by Coursework courses have a research element and may require the completion of a minor thesis.

Doctoral research degree candidates uncover new knowledge, either by the discovery of new facts, the formulation of theories or the innovative reinterpretation of known and established ideas.

In a professional Doctorate, the objective is to demonstrate an in-depth research knowledge of a particular area. A Ph. D. in science is a thorough training to become a scientist. This is generally an award bestowed upon people who have made a substantial contribution to their discipline through their research.

Q: Why does one want to do PhD?

Krishna: In my case… it is to gain more knowledge. To pursue the subject I love more vigorously. To get trained as a scientist.

It became easy for me to go ahead when I got top ranks in the University and a CSIR fellowship. 

Q: How do you know the people who do the peer-review of your paper are competent for the position? I once knew a first-year PhD student was asked to do peer-review for papers of a conference hosted by her adviser. I think first-year PhD is totally new, still have lots to learn…

Krishna: There is no way to learn  unless the publishers tell you about it and they usually won’t!

You can’t escape some things not only in peer-reviewing but also in allocating projects, funds and in judging awards, prizes etc. Biases and incompetence are real and you need not feel sorry if you miss something despite having merit.

Lesson that should be learnt: Don’t lose your confidence because of somebody else’s bias and incompetence. 

Q: How do I kick my PhD adviser from my papers' author list? Long story short, I published a paper alone recently, and my PhD adviser came to me and said: you have to put my name on all your papers, otherwise you can leave. The problem is that he never payed attention to my research, never gave me ONE single idea, never asked me "how are things going SR?", never ever. But he says: I worked to get the money that is funding your PhD, which is true, but this is a proposal for a research project that I wrote. He basically reviewed the text and we sent it out. I wouldn't mind to keep him in the author list, but not only he helps me 0 with my PhD, as he also started to humiliate me in front of more people, saying that I am disorganized and incompetent, about 1 year ago. 
I am thinking about publishing two other papers till I graduate, and he freaked out when I mentioned the possibility he wouldn't be in the author list. I am afraid he stops me from graduating or gives me a bad grade.

KrishnaOh, My! This shows how bad things can get.

To tell you the truth, my adviser too never advised me to do anything. I did everything myself. In the beginning itself I was told I would have to depend entirely on my grey matter. I took it as a challenge and strictly followed what I was told to do.

But I think whatever had happened was for my good only. When you learn how to go about things on your own, you gain confidence, knowledge and get more creative.

I added my supervisor’s name to all my papers despite the help I didn’t get. I never complained but maintained a very cordial relationship throughout my Ph.D. with my ‘guide’. In the end I got a very good recommendation letter from my supervisor praising me and my capabilities to no end!

It is easy to get bitter but I think you too should follow what I did. Kicking your adviser out of your papers gives a very bad impression about you to other people in your academic circle and it doesn’t bring you any good.

Q: Are identical strains necessary in the Biological research?

Krishna:  Yes, to make uniform research conditions identical strains are very important. By allowing access to identical strains, cultivars and cell lines, the collections allow published research to be directly reproduced. This is of special value because – along with addressing concerns about the reproducibility of scientific data – it also makes individual organisms, clones, populations or tools that have been used successfully in research studies available to other investigators, bypassing the need for repeated optimization studies.

Q: Can we trust research findings all the time?

Krishna: There is a research paper that  discusses this problem. It says: There is increasing concern that most current published research findings are false. The probability that a research claim is true may depend on study power and bias, the number of other studies on the same question, and, importantly, the ratio of true to no relationships among the relationships probed in each scientific field. In this framework, a research finding is less likely to be true when the studies conducted in a field are smaller; when effect sizes are smaller; when there is a greater number and lesser preselection of tested relationships; where there is greater flexibility in designs, definitions, outcomes, and analytical modes; when there is greater financial and other interest and prejudice; and when more teams are involved in a scientific field in chase of statistical significance. Simulations show that for most study designs and settings, it is more likely for a research claim to be false than true. Moreover, for many current scientific fields, claimed research findings may often be simply accurate measures of the prevailing bias.

Why Most Published Research Findings Are False : http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pm... )

Q: What impact can a bad research reports have on general public?

Krishna: The impact is highly significant in medical research according to scientists. Most of the harm comes in  invisible form — diseases not cured, hopes not met. Occasionally people are actively harmed by these problems. For example, doctors prescribed hormone replacement therapy (estrogen and progestin) to postmenopausal women for many years before they realized they were actually causing thousands of excess cases of breast cancer and heart disease. The failures of basic biomedical research are more subtle but arguably have greater impact on people.

Q: Why do we get false reports?

Krishna:  Because of  “undesirable behaviuors,” which need not be blatant falsification or malfeasance, but more like corner-cutting — from sloppy handling of data to skipping repeat experiments, not considering all the parameters before coming to a conclusion because of lack of time and resources.

These are far more common, given the hypercompetitive world of research, where the pressure is on not only to produce, but to produce quickly and to come up with flashy results.

Q: Is it possible to complete a Ph.D. all alone without a good supervisor?

Krishna: Universities and fund providers insist on supervisors. Therefore, you have to have one according to rules.

But if the supervisor is not good or refuses to help you in any way, you can work on your own like I did. My supervisor told me very clearly in the beginning itself that I would have to depend only on my grey matter. I took it as a challenge and did everything myself and succeeded in getting a Ph.D. on my own. My supervisor was happy.

If you are capable of doing that - at this stage one should - you can go ahead without the help of a supervisor.

Q: Why scientific research in Indian Universities is declining?

Krishna: There are several reasons. The main things are faulty training and people’s lack of interest in research. You will find full details and how to improve scientific research in India here: How to make scientific research in India a success story

Q: Is it possible to do research (not necessarily for a Ph.D.) without a supervisor?

Krishna: Yes, you can do research without a supervisor. But first you have to learn how to go about it - especially in science. It is very hard but can be self-taught, by reading all about it and observing how others are going about it. 

Q: I am a BSc student interested in cosmology and studying in India. Can I directly apply for a PhD abroad after my BSc? My first year is done and now I will be moving on to the second year in a month. I’m ready to do any amount of hard work or self study required, if I know what to do. What could increase my chances of getting accepted for PhD? Also, could you suggest some institutions for the same?  

Krishna: As far as I know it is very difficult to get a Ph.D. admission in India with just a BSc degree.

However, some universities in the West will accept you if you are a top ranker and have excellent research experience. If you have peer-reviewed published papers that would really help. So try to get some experience by joining research groups and giving them your voluntary help.

Getting funds for a Ph.D. is difficult and in a highly competitive world, if you skip your MS, that would make things more difficult for you unless you are highly intelligent and exceptional. You need to show your research interest to the admission panel for which you need some proof such as publications, patents, conferences and you will have to deeply convince them about your genuine interest.

Some of my friends who have M.Sc. qualifications too failed to get admissions into PhDs that are funded in the West.

Anyway try to contact as many professors in cosmology as possible and send them your applications with an excellent statement of purpose. If somebody can help you and ready to guide you that would be really wonderful.

All the best

Q; Can I do a PhD in the US after completing an MS in India?  

Krishna: Yes, you can! Some of my friends did their PhDs in the US after completing their PGs in India.

Q: Is doing a PhD degree in the US worth it?  

Krishna: A Ph.D. is a Ph.D. anywhere in the world.

But you have to spend more for the excellent facilities provided in the US labs. If you can get funding, you need not worry about this aspect.

There are some very good world class research institutes in India too. If you can get into any of these RIs you can get your Ph.D. for only a fraction of what you have to spend in the US.

The research atmosphere can be different in different countries depending on the culture around but usually scientific research follows a universal methodology.

I don’t see much difference from place to place in the field of science.

Q: Do you think that a PhD should be of a fixed duration, like a bachelor’s or a master’s degree? Many of the students I have met with and fellow mates are highly apprehensive about the duration of PhD. In some cases, it extends even upto 7–10 years. This is a fact which has made them( me also ) skeptical about pursuing a PhD. What are your thoughts regarding this ?  

Krishna: I think putting a limit on the years is not good. Some experiments take a long time to get results - either positive or negative. Some subjects and problems are easy to work in or solve while others are difficult. We cannot judge with only our experience in our field.

A Ph. D. student is just getting training and not an expert to complete his work quickly. Time taken also depends on your ‘experience’ in research and how much help you get from your supervisor.

Anyway funding agencies put a limit on the years. This transforms into lots of pressure on the students and in desperation some students try to manipulate results which is very bad.

Little bit of compulsion is okay but in the long term, it doesn’t result in good results in some conditions.

Good research work takes time. Lots of it!

Q: Is a PhD student expected to put his supervisor name on his paper even if the supervisor has not done anything?  

Krishna: Yes, in most cases. That is if you want to get a positive outcome.

I did add the name of my supervisor to all my papers even though I got zero help.

What did I gain?

Good relationship with my guide

Great name in academic circles

An excellent recommendation letter from my supervisor in the end.

Q: What happens after a PhD? After 5-6 years in academics, does it feel weird? What were the feelings to finally be done with being a student? What was the first thing you did after getting your certification?  

Krishna: Simple: What you decide would happen!

For me there weren’t any feelings at all immediately. My mind completely went blank!

My folks celebrated more than I did.

After a while I wanted to go into a more sophisticated lab to do more work.

Q; Which area in MYCOLOGY is good for carrying out Ph.D. research 

krishna; I think Plant pathology, clinical mycology, food and storage mycology, pharmaceutical and industrial applications of fungi are some of the important fields in which you can pursue your Ph.D.

Q: How can a young researcher achieve independence in scientific research? *Independence in their thinking process that can lead to an intellectual output of a considerable level of novelty and impact.  

Krishna: If you decide to find your own way without depending on your supervisor. If you have your own mind that is completely dependable and intellectually superior.

But most of the time, supervisors won’t allow that because of their own priorities and they depend on their students’ work to achieve results they want. However, if you are smart you can always convince your guide about your capabilities.

Then you have your fund providers who try to restrict you. Again you can try to make them fund you if your proposal looks brilliant.

So you should have the confidence in yourself plus convincing abilities to gain complete independence in scientific research.

I worked completely independently as my supervisor encouraged it and my fund provider (CSIR) allowed me to do so. I must say that really made me very happy. 

Q:How reliable are research findings in peer-reviewed journals like Nature, given the "stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency" scandal?  

Krishna: While most of scientific research is reliable, some papers have reproducibility problems.

However, in recent times, the scientific community has identified the problems associated with peer-reviewing and is trying to rectify them. They are having very detailed discussions on several of the pitfalls of not strictly following scientific methodology recently. They are even conducting research on these issues and publishing papers to bring the mess to the direct notice of the scientific community. If you click on the references given below you will find articles to make you understand how much the scientific community is worried about reliability of published research and how to correct the system. Don't think they are ignoring the problems associated with peer review. Very soon you will notice the new types of peer-reviewing, asking scientists to provide full data of their work from day one of their research work to the day of coming to conclusions, open access of research results , post-publication peer review, independent verification of published work to detect frauds, strict vigilance on new/student researchers, verification of the results over and over again and new retraction policies. Some of the prestigious scientific journals have already announced their new codes.

This self analysis and correcting process itself makes science reliable.

http://elifesciences.org/content/4/e10825?utm_source=content_alert&...

http://www.bmj.com/content/348/bmj.g2227

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/01/26/464010931/journ...

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/how-to-fix-peer-r...

http://www.vox.com/2015/1/10/7522713/open-access

https://pubpeer.com/

https://curatescience.org/

http://retractionwatch.com/

Q: What should be the ideal routine of a PhD student so that he can be more productive in his research?

Krishna: These are the routes that take you to higher altitudes in research…

Be independent as far as possible

Have a full and clear understanding about the subject

Have knowledge in related topics to creatively connect things

Have full knowledge about the papers published

Develop problem solving abilities

Develop full concentration so that the problem will have you completely in its grip

Have passion for research and helping people around

Q:How old were you when you started and completed your PhD program? I live in CA and I'm considering on pursuing a Phd in clinical psychology. I also want to know how you guys were able to survive grad school? What did you have to do?  

Krishna: I was 22 when I started it and completed it when I was 26. I got my Ph.D. when I was 27. I didn’t find any difficulty except for the first six months while I was trying to figure out how to go about it. After that it was a smooth ride. Because my supervisor left everything to me and never tried to interfere in my way of doing my work. I got a fellowship too - so no survival problems. Everything went according to my plan and I enjoyed it thoroughly and loved each and every moment of it. 

Q: ( based on the above answer of mine): “I didn’t find any difficulty except for the first six months while I was trying to figure out how to go about it.” I would really love to know what you figured out, and how. I am a Masters student who has just started his second year, and I have to figure out a research problem which I will then (try to) solve in next one year. I think it’s a similar situation to what you faced as a beginning PhD scholar. Any advice on how to proceed will be hugely appreciated- I may even mention you in my Nobel acceptance speech in the future!

Krishna:  :) Okay, if you are after a Nobel prize, that gives me an excuse to spend some time here. But my reply helps you only if you are really passionate about research and have the courage to proceed despite innumerable roadblocks.

First select a problem that really needs immediate attention of the world and finding a solution to it absolutely helps the world.

See that it comes in the sphere of your interest too. Otherwise you will get bored easily and abandon it at the first sight of a hurdle.

Read all the literature available on it. Prepare a good plan. Find a supervisor who is game for the idea of your independence and trusts you completely with the problem.

Find a funding agency who will allow you to go your chosen way.

Acquire knowledge in several related fields too. Try to creatively connect a solution from another field to the problem you encountered in your field. Experiment with these creative connections until you arrive at a perfect answer to the question you are facing.

And… need I say more?

At this stage you should be able to go forward with these suggestions. Expecting a constant spoon-feeding by someone itself is a big No-No in scientific research.

Q: What is the format of an academic journal?

Krishna: There is no common format. Each and every journal has its own unique format which will be made available to authors on their website or in their journal. You have to select the journal first and then follow the format the publishers want you to write in.

Q:What if all the famous scientists worked as a team? What would be the possible outcomes?  

Krishna: Wow! That would be a dream team! We can expect great things from such a team if it works.

I think we already have CERN that has some of the best brains from several countries in the world working together.

Interdisciplinary research is one of the critical aspects of science. It can creatively solve problems the human kind is facing today. But the success depends on several things.

Successful scientific collaborations should have strong leaders. The atmosphere should be conflict free. Participants should trust in each other’s ability. There should be a common goal and vision. Clear rules should be set on the roles each member should play, authorship of papers published and sharing the credit.

Q: Which is the better college for an M.Sc in physics, OU or HCU?  

Krishna: Although I am from OU, my vote goes to HCU! Because the latter is one of the best in the country and got into the list of some of the best universities in the world too. 

Q:How is the situation of Ph.D. holders in India?  

Krishna: That depends on your work, field and your personality.

In sciences it is good.

I cannot comment about the situation in other fields.

Q: I am an M.A in Poltical Science which is arts background. Arts stream gets thrown to the dustbin because of lop sided copyright rules. The authors of papers are not respected.

Is it because of favouritism to science of Indian society?

What do you think?

Krishna: If a paper is of excellent quality, it doesn’t matter which field it comes from. I Have seen some very good papers in commerce and visual art. I myself have done research in arts and published a paper in an International journal though I am from the science faculty! My paper got very good response and I got respect too for doing research in both science and art.

Q: Is reading an academic paper a day a good daily habit?  

Krishna: Yes, good for people who want to learn things. Good for people who want to keep in touch with what is happening in their research field. Wonderful for people who want to creatively connect various things and solve problems.

But we don’t read them daily. When ever we find time, we sit in the library or go on line and read a few of them at a stretch. 

Q: Should average students from an undergraduate school pursue a PhD or is a PhD only for toppers?  

Krishna: Anybody can go for a Ph.D. Achieving your goals will ultimately take hard work, careful planning and a consistent commitment to expanding and refining your knowledge and skills. If you are passionate about science and research, creative enough to connect things and have a will to succeed, go ahead and chase your dreams.

Read this article that motivates people into going for scientific research:

Ungifted: Intelligence Redefined (Book)

Q:Can anyone name organizations that publish research papers without asking for my age and degree? I've a theory which explains dark energy, rotations & shapes of heavenly objects, & the reason of big bang. I can calculate the measure of how much the sun moves towards the earth. I'm 15 years old school going boy, & have no educational qualification. I study all this on the internet.  

Krishna: If you are confident about your work, you can send it to any journal in the field. But you have to follow the format prescribed by the journals. If they ask for your qualifications and affiliations, you have to give them.

But I want to add one thing here. Internet doesn’t give you correct information. If you base your work on the information you get on the net, people will have reservations accepting them. Read here why…

Lab scientists versus internet scientists

All the best to you

Q: How is studying at Osmania University?

Krishna: I enjoyed it thoroughly.

My university taught me not only the science subject s I was pursuing but also life’s lessons. It made me what I am today, a whole human being.

But now people tell me all that has changed and they no longer recommend it.

Hmmm! 

Q: Can anyone name organizations that publish research papers without asking for my age and degree? I've a theory which explains dark energy, rotations & shapes of heavenly objects, & the reason of big bang. I can calculate the measure of how much the sun moves towards the earth. I'm 15 years old school going boy, & have no educational qualification. I study all this on the internet.  

Krishna: If you are confident about your work, you can send it to any journal in the field. But you have to follow the format prescribed by the journals. If they ask for your qualifications and affiliations, you have to give them.

But I want to add one thing here. Internet doesn’t give you correct information. If you base your work on the information you get on the net, people will have reservations accepting them. Read here why…

Lab scientists versus internet scientists

All the best to you

Q based on the above one: What about this youtube channel- pbs space time? I've been seeing this for months

Krishna: I just watched one or two videos of PBS. I don’t think journals will accept if you give citations of this channel.

If the paper is sent to me for review I would reject it immediately!

I recommend that you base your work on peer-reviewed papers in highly reliable journals. 

Q: Can we write a research paper just by copying from secondary researches?  

Krishna: Plagiarism! No! Do you think reviewers or publishers are stupid to accept it?

You can write a meta analysis of published papers though.

Q: How valuable is it to pursue a PhD?  

Krishna: Highly valuable.

The answer depends on your perception, personality, interests and goals.

If you want to enhance your knowledge, go for it. If you want to enhance your job prospects, go for it. If you have time, go for it. If you have passion for research go for it. If you are a hard worker, go for it. If you are persistent, go for it. If you have patience, go for it. If you want respect from people around, go for it. If you are highly creative, go for it. If you want to solve problems and help people around, go for it.

Q;Is it possible in today's time to do more research on something without the help of Google or the internet?  

Krishna: Do you think google and Internet give you the correct information to do research?

Then read this article: Lab scientists versus internet scientists

Don’t get mislead by internet version of stories especially with regard to science.

Q: How valuable is it to pursue a Ph.D.?

Krishna: Highly valuable.

The answer depends on your perception, personality, interests and goals.

If you want to enhance your knowledge, go for it. If you want to enhance your job prospects, go for it. If you have time, go for it. If you have passion for research go for it. If you are a hard worker, go for it. If you are persistent, go for it. If you have patience, go for it. If you want respect from people around, go for it. If you are highly creative, go for it. If you want to solve problems and help people around, go for it.

Q: How do research students in India earn a living?

Krishna: You get fellowships (UGC and CSIR) while doing your research as a student. You can also teach in the university colleges while conducting research. 

Q: What factors impact media to publish research?

Krishna: A study conducted shows that the most important factors associated with high online media attention were the presence of a press release and the journal impact factor. There was no evidence that study design with high level of evidence and type of abstract conclusion were associated with high online media attention (1).

Q: How can we become CSIR scientists?

Krishna: This is from from technical jobs point of view:

The minimum qualification to become a CSIR Scientist is ME/MTech with atleast 80% Marks (unlike BE/BTech in other organizations For eg. ISRO,BARC).

Furthermore, Candiadate should posses at least 2 research papers published in SCI Journals. Additionaly, PhD is desirable but not essential Qualification.

After having all of the above credentials you will appear in interview organized by the particular CSIR lab where your performance,your goodwill and your luck will make you a CSIR Scientist.

But you can become a scientist in any CSIR labs like CCMB, Hyderabad. You will find the list here: LINKS TO OTHER CSIR LABS

and here;

http://www.dsir.nic.in/a_report/english/2004-05E/7-annex8-9-e-0405.pdf

If you have a research experience, published papers in good quality journals, have a Ph.D. you can apply for a scientist job in any of these labs. They will be advertising for them…

Recruitment | Council of Scientific & Industrial Research | GoI

If you qualify for any of these jobs, you can apply and get recruited.

Q: What can I do if the lab is not well equipped to the type of PhD research I am perfoming? I am working in a lab that it's not well equipped for the type of research i am doing , and my labmates advices me not to let the professor know about that else there will be consequences , they say the professor always like to hear positive feedback  

Krishna: One should first thoroughly check before starting to work whether the lab suits your research subject or not. Without checking how could you join the lab? Why did your guide agree to guide you on the topic chosen if he cannot provide the right type of infrastructure in the first place? How did the institution give you permission? How did your fund provider agree to give the money to you?

After going very far, don’t you realize it is a waste of time to start your work without fully studying, analyzing and understanding the subject?

How can you work without telling your guide your problems? You have to change your subject if your lab doesn’t provide you conditions to work on the topic chosen or the lab if you want to continue with the same topic. Or you have to ask your fund provider to equip you adequately.

Your lab mates are not giving you the right advice. You cannot work without finding a solution and doing so has to involve your guide at this stage.

Q: Is a Ph.D. life lonely?

Krishna: When you are dealing with your topic and your work, yes, you have to do it all alone and nobody is going to work for you or help you. Sometimes, not even your supervisor - if you have one like mine.

Is Ph.D. life lonely? No. You will have your friends, colleagues and family members outside your lab/cabin if you have time for them :)

Q: I am working on a research paper how would I know weather the research idea has been taken before or not?  

Q: From where can I check various research papers from various journals as I am working on one?

Krishna: I was sent a different question and when I clicked on it, the page shows that the question has been changed! Anyway it doesn’t matter.

Before starting your work, you should go through the entire literature on the subject. Peer-reviewed, high quality journals in your field give a whole view. Without having a thorough knowledge you cannot even plan and start your work. Sit in the library/before your PC for the next six months and learn all about the subject first.

You can also discuss your problem with your guide/senior colleagues. Any person working in the research field will have full knowledge on the topic and will be able to give you his or her suggestions. 

Q: Can the accuracy of knowledge in science decrease over time?
Krishna : On the contrary, it increases with each new experiment, observation, result, conclusion and evidence. As new data arrives, either your old theory is busted or confirmed or at least your knowledge about the problem increases to make more inroads into the field.

 Citations:

1. https://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186...

You can find some more Qs on scientific research and my replies to them

here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum/topics/how-to-do-resear...

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removing barriers in the way of science (best website to get free journals , its wiki page - Sci-Hub - Wikipedia)

Library Genesis (another great site for journals with free ebooks)

Microsoft Academic (another great site for journals, by microsoft)

step-by-step process on how to get Ph.D. admits with more tips and t....

 Edulix - Premier Site for Scholars - 'Education Crowd-Sourced'

1. Make a list of universities that admit students  for PhD with your profile. use Edulix - Premier Site for Scholars - 'Education Crowd-Sourced'  for this.
2. Make a list of professors whose work interests you and read up on their work. Use Page on google.com for finding their papers and publications.
3. Email the professors explaining why you are interested in their research work and how you think you can contribute towards their work.
4. Do not wait until the last minute to email professors. If you want to join fall of 2015, then email professors at least a year ahead.

Plagiarism tools:

Online plagiarism checking tools http://bit.ly/1kEmNtC

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