Science, Art, Litt, Science based Art & Science Communication

Confirmation effects dioptical-bioptical applicable in fine art

Dioptical-bioptical effects have resulted from studies done by me,

for application in the fields of fine art Binocular Rivalry,  Colour fusion Helmholtz, Stereoscopy  


  I have obtained effects:


Psychophysiological mixture of colours, retinal cooperation, antispace in art, spatial harmony, bispace in art, psychic cycle, dynamics of space depth, spatial disharmony, hyper-realistic effects, hiatus in art, visual gradient, hyperspace in art, space and time in bioptical art, field binocular rivalry.

Some of these have not been experienced by humans yet.


  See: 3. Bioptical effects, definitions

   12. Visual-sense-storming

For information and thematic development

see the field in who enroll my publications:


science visual sense fine art images

   access and images


Opening chapters in culture (with important innovations) are promoted (usually) with, difficulty, because they can not be classified, not formed yet experts.


To confirm the effects of  dioptical-bioptical I called and got a patent for novelty means that I support.



It's a way so as to patent experts to find novelty by demonstrations

the author is obliged to make


Even in this case it is difficult to establish title to the patent to be classified.


    Referring to confirm the effects obtained through my studies

I filed on 07.31.1995 and obtained patent on 30.04.1997

with the title:

Metoda pentru redari cinetice de tip stereoscopic

Type kinetic method for playing stereoscopic



 I participated with my patent 112061 OSIM Romania to:

Salon International des Inventions GENEVE (Switzerland) ;  12 aprilie 2000


 I got diploma 

 Silver Medal (protocol) confirms

the jury of experts found that the method described in the patent corresponding

effects which I claim.


We presented patent badge below, which provides a graphical summary of the patent. 



 One of elememtele presented the jury is program

to demonstrate kinetic effects:

Binocular Rivalry,  Colour fusion Helmholtz, Stereoscopy




 Liviu Iliescu : Dioptical-boptical Art kinetic (DPAC)

(arranged for crossed-eye viewing:  one sees this image from far

from 1 ... 3 meters )                                                                                                           

Follow the instructions to open the file:

Method for stereoscope-type kinetic expressions



Teaching purposes initiation Dioptica - Bioptical art I developed a documentation

for computer programming.

  Computer program and implementation were made by ing. Ralea Daniel






   Four variants obtained by applying kinetic program.

Arranged for crossed-eye viewing; each version will be seen separately


  The user-controlled combination multiple choice images are obtained

Structured with: Binocular Rivalry, Colour Fusion Helmholtz Stereoscopy


In films and TV shows continuous movement through visual hysteresis.

In the program, DPAC, I introduced intervals noticeable. May

introduce similar programs optionally intervals,

making the assumption that being react more strongly to novelty.



This psychological game can be practiced by anyone who has knowledge of

initiation for computer use.


All techniques resulting from claims of patent no. OSIM 112061 Romania

can be used for free. My goal was to confirm the effects of experts from

 the institution that granted patents



Also can be used for free and other techniques generally result in my descriptions


  I recommend these images, obtained with the method DPAC, (see above)

  for training and initiation in Dioptical-Bioptical Art

Also I bring this program to the attention of researchers from fields:

   Neuroimaging; Neuroaestetic.


I suggest these applications as a result of communications from:

Subcortical discrimination of unperceived objects during binocular rivalry.

  1. - Neuron - Brian N Pasley, Linda C Mayes ...


They'll probably find that specific activity in the brain in response to
novelty that mobilizes interest in being the nearest reflex compared to interest disinterested
which generally characterize fine art


Psychical satiety in affectivity


The phenomenon of binocular rivalry is has long been known.

 Herman von Helmholtz  (century XIX) named him Retinal rivalry


Excerpt from:

Introduction to bioptical terminology


RETINAL RIVALRY Psychophysical response to different colours and forms,

 separately and differently  received by the two retinas (Hermann von Helmholtz).


  Robert P O'Shea has published an extensive bibbliografie  as the basis

 for developing the field of Binocular Rivalry.


Binocular rivalry bibliography - Robert P O'Shea - Google Sites

In the book published by me:

The Paired Off Visual Signal 2007, Monitorul Oficial, Bucharest,

            95  pages ISBN 978-973-0-05187-2.

 I use this bibliography, extracting data to describe

  historical development of the field of Binocular Rivalry

 Excerpt from:

2. Binocular rivalry and stereoscopy in bioptical art 


In my publications, I have used the somewhat traditional terms retinal rivalry and colour fusion, borrowed from the studies of Herman von Helmholtz, published in Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik(Leopold Voss, Leipzig, 1867). They were translated in 1925 as Treatise on Physiological Optics (editor J.P. Southall, Dover, New York). 
Binocular rivalry is a field which has aroused the researchers` interest in the last three decades, especially in psychology and neurology. 
Randolph Blake lists more than 140 references in his study A Primer on Binocular Rivalry, Including Current Controversies, published in "Brain and Mind" in 2001. Sixty percent of the titles were published after 1975. [Figure 2.1 of this chapter is reproduced from Blake`s article.] Blake briefly reviews the main contributions, starting with J.B. Porta`s De Refractione. Optices Part. Libri Novem of 1593, quoted by N.J. Wade in 1998 in A Natural History of Vision. 
In order to follow up the historic itinerary of studies on binocular rivalry, I will also refer to Wade’s monograph. 
- Le Clerk (1712) pointed to the binocular rivalry with colours. 
- Dutour (1760, 1763) clearly describes the binocular rivalry of two colours with contour. He also describes the fusion with the naked eye, by eye convergence or divergence. This modality of observation was resumed in 1990 by Christopher Tyler in the autostereograms invented by him and popularly called "Magic Eye".






 Fig 2.1 R. Blake ;Binocular rivalry


Pairs of images that form Binocular Rivalry are used in research for

  study of brain functioning.

  They have no artistic content and are not compatible with traditional compositions.



Compatibility in Bioptical Art


In dioptical-bioptical art I made, artistic adaptations, applying stimuli to the type

those resulting from: Binocular Rivalry, Colour Fusion Helmholtz Stereoscopy

  This method I used in painting Study M.

I have published the description and photograph of Study M, in 1987 in the article:


 Liviu Iliescu;  Pictura bioptica (Bioptical painting), "Stiinta si Tehnica" (Bucharest), no 8-9, 1987.

In kinetic program DPAC develops stereoscopic virtual space through succession

  image at intervals of seconds to cause the output of ordinary perception

the movement of an object.


Crossed-eye viewing  

In connection with the crossed-eye viewing I make the following observations:

in research that is undertaken must be taken into account

fact that cross-eyed observation   shows large differences between convergence

 and accommodation of the eyes.



Bioptical art, convergence and accommodation of the eyes, accuracy ...


In which I propose techniques can change (adjust) the difference, from crossed-eye viewing,

   to getting normal contemplation (required for applications in fine art)


  However stereoscopic effect is obtained by differences induced for accommodation and convergence


Through regular contemplation, I consider annulment variances for a reference plane

such as painting plan.


Thus propose:




 Placing pair horizontal components induce differences

  In accommodation-convergence, which departs the observer from

contemplation normal





This device can be used to monocular whatever kind

visual communication: painting, sculpture or digital images (ln cases TV

or computer no need other means intermediate)


 Stereoscope for dioptical-bioptical perception


An observation about the efficiency visual communication, using fine art

 Of course it is important to ensure the evolution of the technical knowledge in fine art,

but I believe that the assessment should be made primarily in connection with induced emotions, such as

     the intelligence component    may be dimmed (psychic life).



At present the research that shows updates that can not be

placed in existing classifications of culture, I believe it is recommended to consult

Google scientific programs of ordering (bibliography?)




About colored fusion  Helmholtz

  As is known hue pairs apart, such as blue and red

causes effects of binocular rivalry.


A result of my studies possibility that in, forms relatively small, to combine these

 colors psycho-physical,   obtaining a stable result


An example


COLOUR FUSION WITH MARKS Psychic response to watching a coloured biform (a form for the left eye and another one for the right eye, having different colours), when in the coloured fields a mark of the same colour is inscribed; a line or a spot of the same colour, but different from the colours of the two fields). Coloured marks result in the perception of a resultant colour. In some cases rivalry fluctuations are ruled out. 


From; 3. Bioptical effects, definitions








Liviu Iliescu – Binocular rivalry, Colour fusion helmholtz and Stereoscopy; Bioptical Art 1998
Should be viewed with both crossed-eye and parallel view


 Publishing in the journal Art, Magazine Artists Union (UAP) in Romania

                     Revista Uniunii Artistilor Plastici (UAP) din Romania 

  1. Liviu Iliescu; Pictura bioptica (Bioptical painting), "Arta" (Bucharest), no 7, 1988.

                 Bioptical painting


  2.Liviu Iliescu; Acordul retinelor (Retinal cooperation), "Arta" (Bucharest), no 5, 1989.
                         Antanta retinelor           


   3. Liviu Iliescu; Abstractizare stimulata (Stimulated abstractization), "Arta" (Bucharest), no 2, 1990.
                   Abstractizare stimulata


    4. Liviu Iliescu ; Adieri albastre (Blue breezes), "Arta" (Bucharest), no 9-10, 1990.
                       Adieri albastre


My first publication 

OSIM Patent no 67678/19.02.1974 - Method for model making.  


14. Some additions and resumptions on the bioptical composition

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