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Table I. Persistence of coronaviruses on different types of inanimate surfaces

Type of surface Virus Strain / isolate Inoculum (viral titer) Temperature Persistence Reference
Steel MERS-CoV Isolate HCoV-EMC/2012 105 20°C
30°C
48 h
8–24 h
[21]
TGEV Unknown 106 4°C
20°C
40°C
≥ 28 d
3–28 d
4–96 h
[22]
MHV Unknown 106 4°C
20°C
40°C
≥ 28 d
4–28 d
4–96 h
[22]
HCoV Strain 229E 103 21°C 5 d [23]
Aluminium HCoV Strains 229E and OC43 5 x 103 21°C 2–8 h [24]
Metal SARS-CoV Strain P9 105 RT 5 d [25]
Wood SARS-CoV Strain P9 105 RT 4 d [25]
Paper SARS-CoV Strain P9 105 RT 4–5 d [25]
SARS-CoV Strain GVU6109 106
105
104
RT 24 h
3 h
< 5 min
[26]
Glass SARS-CoV Strain P9 105 RT 4 d [25]
HCoV Strain 229E 103 21°C 5 d [23]
Plastic SARS-CoV Strain HKU39849 105 22°-25°C ≤ 5 d [27]
MERS-CoV Isolate HCoV-EMC/2012 105 20°C
30°C
48 h
8–24 h
[21]
SARS-CoV Strain P9 105 RT 4 d [25]
SARS-CoV Strain FFM1 107 RT 6–9 d [28]
HCoV Strain 229E 107 RT 2–6 d [28]
PVC HCoV Strain 229E 103 21°C 5 d [23]
Silicon rubber HCoV Strain 229E 103 21°C 5 d [23]
Surgical glove (latex) HCoV Strains 229E and OC43 5 x 103 21°C ≤ 8 h [24]
Disposable gown SARS-CoV Strain GVU6109 106
105
104
RT 2 d
24 h
1 h
[26]
Ceramic HCoV Strain 229E 103 21°C 5 d [23]
Teflon HCoV Strain 229E 103 21°C 5 d [23]

MERS = Middle East Respiratory Syndrome; HCoV = human coronavirus; TGEV = transmissible gastroenteritis virus; MHV = mouse hepatitis virus; SARS = Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome; RT = room temperature.

Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195670120300463

Table II. Inactivation of coronaviruses by different types of biocidal agents in suspension tests

Biocidal agent Concentration Virus Strain / isolate Exposure time Reduction of viral infectivity (log10) Reference
Ethanol 95% SARS-CoV Isolate FFM-1 30 s ≥ 5.5 [29]
85% SARS-CoV Isolate FFM-1 30 s ≥ 5.5 [29]
80% SARS-CoV Isolate FFM-1 30 s ≥ 4.3 [29]
80% MERS-CoV Strain EMC 30 s > 4.0 [14]
78% SARS-CoV Isolate FFM-1 30 s ≥ 5.0 [28]
70% MHV Strains MHV-2 and MHV-N 10 min > 3.9 [30]
70% CCV Strain I-71 10 min > 3.3 [30]
2-Propanol 100% SARS-CoV Isolate FFM-1 30 s ≥ 3.3 [28]
75% SARS-CoV Isolate FFM-1 30 s ≥ 4.0 [14]
75% MERS-CoV Strain EMC 30 s ≥ 4.0 [14]
70% SARS-CoV Isolate FFM-1 30 s ≥ 3.3 [28]
50% MHV Strains MHV-2 and MHV-N 10 min > 3.7 [30]
50% CCV Strain I-71 10 min > 3.7 [30]
2-Propanol and 1-propanol 45% and 30% SARS-CoV Isolate FFM-1 30 s ≥ 4.3 [29]
SARS-CoV Isolate FFM-1 30 s ≥ 2.8 [28]
Benzalkonium chloride 0.2% HCoV ATCC VR-759 (strain OC43) 10 min 0.0 [31]
0.05% MHV Strains MHV-2 and MHV-N 10 min > 3.7 [30]
0.05% CCV Strain I-71 10 min > 3.7 [30]
0.00175% CCV Strain S378 3 d 3.0 [32]
Didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride 0.0025% CCV Strain S378 3 d > 4.0 [32]
Chlorhexidine digluconate 0.02% MHV Strains MHV-2 and MHV-N 10 min 0.7–0.8 [30]
0.02% CCV Strain I-71 10 min 0.3 [30]
Sodium hypochlorite 0.21% MHV Strain MHV-1 30 s ≥ 4.0 [33]
0.01% MHV Strains MHV-2 and MHV-N 10 min 2.3–2.8 [30]
0.01% CCV Strain I-71 10 min 1.1 [30]
0.001% MHV Strains MHV-2 and MHV-N 10 min 0.3–0.6 [30]
0.001% CCV Strain I-71 10 min 0.9 [30]
Hydrogen peroxide 0.5% HCoV Strain 229E 1 min > 4.0 [34]
Formaldehyde 1% SARS-CoV Isolate FFM-1 2 min > 3.0 [28]
0.7% SARS-CoV Isolate FFM-1 2 min > 3.0 [28]
0.7% MHV 10 min > 3.5 [30]
0.7% CCV Strain I-71 10 min > 3.7 [30]
0.009% CCV 24 h > 4.0 [35]
Glutardialdehyde 2.5% SARS-CoV Hanoi strain 5 min > 4.0 [36]
0.5% SARS-CoV Isolate FFM-1 2 min > 4.0 [28]
Povidone iodine 7.5% MERS-CoV Isolate HCoV-EMC/2012 15 s 4.6 [37]
4% MERS-CoV Isolate HCoV-EMC/2012 15 s 5.0 [37]
1% SARS-CoV Hanoi strain 1 min > 4.0 [36]
1% MERS-CoV Isolate HCoV-EMC/2012 15 s 4.3 [37]
0.47% SARS-CoV Hanoi strain 1 min 3.8 [36]
0.25% SARS-CoV Hanoi strain 1 min > 4.0 [36]
0.23% SARS-CoV Hanoi strain 1 min > 4.0 [36]
0.23% SARS-CoV Isolate FFM-1 15 s ≥ 4.4 [38]
0.23% MERS-CoV Isolate HCoV-EMC/2012 15 s ≥ 4.4 [38]

SARS = Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome; MERS = Middle East Respiratory Syndrome; MHV = mouse hepatitis virus; CCV = canine coronavirus; HCoV = human coronavirus.

Table III. Inactivation of coronaviruses by different types of biocidal agents in carrier tests

Biocidal agent Concentration Virus Strain / isolate Volume / material Organic load Exposure time Reduction of viral infectivity (log10) Reference
Ethanol 71% TGEV Unknown 50 μl / stainless steel None 1 min 3.5 [39]
71% MHV Unknown 50 μl / stainless steel None 1 min 2.0 [39]
70% TGEV Unknown 50 μl / stainless steel None 1 min 3.2 [39]
70% MHV Unknown 50 μl / stainless steel None 1 min 3.9 [39]
70% HCoV Strain 229E 20 μl / stainless steel 5% serum 1 min > 3.0 [40]
62% TGEV Unknown 50 μl / stainless steel None 1 min 4.0 [39]
62% MHV Unknown 50 μl / stainless steel None 1 min 2.7 [39]
Benzalkoniumchloride 0.04% HCoV Strain 229E 20 μl / stainless steel 5% serum 1 min < 3.0 [40]
Sodium hypochlorite 0.5% HCoV Strain 229E 20 μl / stainless steel 5% serum 1 min > 3.0 [40]
0.1% HCoV Strain 229E 20 μl / stainless steel 5% serum 1 min > 3.0 [40]
0.06% TGEV Unknown 50 μl / stainless steel None 1 min 0.4 [39]
0.06% MHV Unknown 50 μl / stainless steel None 1 min 0.6 [39]
0.01% HCoV Strain 229E 20 μl / stainless steel 5% serum 1 min < 3.0 [40]
Glutardialdehyde 2% HCoV Strain 229E 20 μl / stainless steel 5% serum 1 min > 3.0 [40]
Ortho-phtalaldehyde 0.55% TGEV Unknown 50 μl / stainless steel None 1 min 2.3 [39]
0.55% MHV Unknown 50 μl / stainless steel None 1 min 1.7 [39]
Hydrogen peroxide Vapor of unknown concentration TGEV Purdue strain type 1 20 μl / stainless steel None 2–3 h 4.9–5.3* [41]

TGEV = transmissible gastroenteritis virus; MHV = mouse hepatitis virus; HCoV = human coronavirus; *depending on the volume of injected hydrogen peroxide.

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