Science, Art, Litt, Science based Art & Science Communication


Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 21
Latest Activity: 2 hours ago


     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 573 articles posted here. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs peopel asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28



Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53


part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...


BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  thier children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis


o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 


b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here:

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

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Discussion Forum

Science communication: Indian National Awards 2020

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 2 hours ago. 4 Replies

Every year Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of  India gives National Awards to people in recognition of outstanding work done by them in the field of science communication.Each year they w…Continue

Why 'messing with nature in the right way' is good for you

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday. 1 Reply

Q: Is Science and human beings foolish to think they can mess with nature in any way it wants?Krishna: ‘Messing with nature’ is interpreted by people in several different ways depending on their…Continue

Qs people asked about science and my replies to them -Part 231 ( herd immunity)

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Saturday. 1 Reply

Q: Does "Herd Immunity" actually exist or is it a theoretical idea that is unprovable or undisprovabable?Krishna: Herd immunity exists. Otherwise we wouldn't have eradicated smallpox and controlled…Continue

Euthanasia, suicide or death are not the solutions to one's suffering from health conditions

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Feb 17. 2 Replies

Comedian Robin Williams had been diagnosed with several health conditions before he committed suicide last year, according to his widow. He was "just disintegrating" physically and mentally in the…Continue

Comment Wall


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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 24, 2021 at 10:56am

Researchers are turning kitchen waste into biofuels

When we eat, our bodies convert food into energy that fuels our lives. But what happens to the energy stored in the several billion pounds of food thrown away annually?

As part of advancing sustainable energy solutions, scientists are converting food waste into clean, renewable fuel that could power our planes, trains and automobiles. Researchers successfully converted food waste  into an energy-dense biofuel that could help replace today's fossil fuels. Early results suggest food waste might deliver a trifecta of efficiency, economic and environmental benefits.

scientists pursuing this  begin by blending the waste, often with the help of customized equipment known as the Muffin Monster that grinds up everything from bones and gristle to seeds, wrappers and packaging. The resulting mush is warmed so it can be continuously pumped into a reactor and converted into fuel.

The researchers are testing different types of food waste to see if they can achieve consistent outcomes. During experiments, they address numerous chemical and process engineering challenges as they arise. They fine-tune the heat exchange design, resolve pumping issues and develop continuous separation techniques.


Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 24, 2021 at 9:41am

Simply speaking while infected can potentially spread COVID-19

COVID-19 can spread from asymptomatic but infected people through small aerosol droplets in their exhaled breath. Most studies of the flow of exhaled air have focused on coughing or sneezing, which can send aerosols flying long distances.

However, speaking while near one another is also risky since the virus can be ejected by merely talking.

In Physics of Fluids, scientists in Japan use smoke and  to study the flow of expelled breath near and around two people conversing in various relative postures commonly found in the , such as in hair salons, medical exam rooms, or .

In this study, electronic cigarettes were used to produce artificial smoke consisting of droplets about one-tenth micron in diameter, similar to the size of a virus particle. The liquid used in these vaping devices, a mixture of glycerin and , produces a cloud of tiny droplets that scatter light from a laser, allowing visualization of airflow patterns.

To study the effect of speech on exhalation, the word "onegaishimasu," a typical Japanese greeting in a business setting. The experiments revealed the  from an unmasked person who is speaking tends to move downward under the influence of gravity. If a customer or patient is lying below, they could be infected. When a mask is worn while standing or sitting, the vapor cloud tends to attach to that person's body, which is warmer than the surrounding air and flows upward along the body. If the technician is leaning over, however, the aerosol cloud tends to detach from that person's body and fall onto the client below.

The investigators also experimented with face shields and found it can prevent any aerosols that leak from around the technician's mask from traveling down to the .

"The face shield promoted the rise of the exhaled breath," said Ishii. "Hence, it is more effective to wear both a mask and a face shield when providing services to customers."

"Relationship between human exhalation diffusion and posture in face-to-face scenario with utterance" Physics of Fluids (2021). DOI: 10.1063/5.0038380


Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 23, 2021 at 12:27pm

Using Light To Revolutionize Medical Imaging

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 23, 2021 at 11:41am

Ghost particle from shredded star reveals cosmic particle accelerator

From a black hole to the South Pole: Scientists identify first neutrino from a tidal disruption event

Tracing back a ghostly particle to a shredded star, scientists have uncovered a gigantic cosmic particle accelerator. The subatomic particle, called a neutrino, was hurled towards Earth after the doomed star came too close to the supermassive black hole at the centre of its home galaxy and was ripped apart by the black hole's colossal gravity. It is the first particle that can be traced back to such a 'tidal disruption event' (TDE) and provides evidence that these little understood cosmic catastrophes can be powerful natural particle accelerators.

The observations also demonstrate the power of exploring the cosmos via a combination of different 'messengers' such as photons (the particles of light) and neutrinos, also known as multi-messenger astronomy.


The neutrino began its journey some 700 million years ago, around the time the first animals developed on Earth. That is the travel time the particle needed to get from the far-away, unnamed galaxy (catalogued as 2MASX J20570298+1412165) in the constellation Delphinus (The Dolphin) to Earth. Scientists estimate that the enormous black hole is as massive as 30 million suns. "The force of gravity gets stronger and stronger, the closer you get to something. That means the black hole's gravity pulls the star's near side more strongly than the star's far side, leading to a stretching effect. This difference is called a tidal force, and as the star gets closer, this stretching becomes more extreme. Eventually it rips the star apart, and then we call it a tidal disruption event. It's the same process that leads to ocean tides on Earth, but luckily for us the moon doesn't pull hard enough to shred the Earth.

About half of the star's debris was flung into space, while the other half settled on a swirling disc around the black hole.  Before plunging into oblivion, the matter from the accretion disc gets hotter and hotter and shines brightly. This glow was first detected by the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) on Mount Palomar in California on 9 April 2019.

Half a year later, on 1 October 2019 the IceCube neutrino detector at the South Pole registered an extremely energetic neutrino from the direction of the tidal disruption event. It smashed into the Antarctic ice with a remarkable energy of more than 100 teraelectronvolts. For comparison, that's at least ten times the maximum particle energy that can be achieved in the world's most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider at the European particle physics lab CERN near Geneva.The extremely lightweight neutrinos hardly interact with anything, able to pass unnoticed through not just walls but whole planets or stars, and are hence often referred to as ghost particles. So, even catching just one high-energy neutrino is already a remarkable observation. Analysis showed that this particular neutrino had only a one in 500 chance of being purely coincidental with the TDE. The detection prompted further observations of the event with many instruments across the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio waves to X-rays.

- A tidal disruption event coincident with a high-energy neutrino; Robert Stein, Sjoert van Velzen, Marek Kowalski, et al.; Nature Astronomy, 2021, DOI: 10.1038/s41550-020-01295-8

- A concordance scenario for the observed neutrino from a tidal discruption event; Walter Winter and Cecilia Lunardini; Nature Astronomy, 2021, DOI: 10.1038/s41550-021-01305-3

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 23, 2021 at 10:32am

How outdoor pollution affects indoor air quality

If you thought you could head indoors to be safe from the air pollution that plagues your area or city, new research shows that elevated air pollution events  claw their way into indoor spaces.

Researchers found that the amount of air pollution that comes indoors depends on the type of outdoor pollution. Wildfires, fireworks and wintertime inversions all affect indoor air to different degrees.

 During their experiments, researchers found  that in general, the pollution levels inside were about 30% of what they were outside.

That's not surprising because during inversions, only around 20% of the air pollution is what's called primary pollution—the particulate matter that comes directly from combustion exhaust. The rest is secondary—formed as gases undergo chemical reactions under specific meteorological conditions and combine to form solid particulates. As soon as the air comes indoors, those meteorological conditions change.

That changes the chemical environment for these particles and they actually dissociate. That's what we're suspecting is happening when these particles come into the building and that's why we don't observe them.

But still the air is still safer inside than outside.

Daniel Mendoza et al, Long-term analysis of the relationships between indoor and outdoor fine particulate pollution: A case study using research grade sensors, Science of The Total Environment (2021). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145778

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 23, 2021 at 10:27am

Unfortunate timing and rate of change may be enough to tip a climat...

Imagine abrupt shifts of the tropical monsoons, reductions in Northern Hemisphere rainfall, and strengthening of North Atlantic storm tracks within decades. These are some of the impacts that climate scientists expect if the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), which redistributes heat from equatorial regions to the Northern Hemisphere, suddenly tips into a dormant state as a result of global warming. The consequences would drastically alter conditions for agriculture, biodiversity, and the economy in large parts of the World.


Drones used to locate dangerous, unplugged oil wells

There are millions of unplugged oil wells in the United States, which pose a serious threat to the environment. Using drones, researchers from Binghamton University, State University of New York have developed a new method to locate these hard-to-locate and dangerous wells.


Carpets of moss help stop erosion

Every year, billions of tons of valuable soil are lost worldwide through erosion, much of it deposited in bodies of water that fill with sand or silt as a result. Soil losses measured in Germany range from 1.4 to 3.2 tons per hectare per year; in extreme weather, the figure can be as high as fifty tons. Geoscientists at the University of Tübingen have now shown how biological soil crusts provide a protective layer against erosion. Natural "carpets" of bacteria, mosses, lichens, fungi and other organisms bind soil particles into coherent layers, or crusts.


Potentially harmful chemicals found in plastic toys

It has long been known that several chemicals used in plastic toys in different parts of the world can be harmful to human health. However, it is difficult for parents to figure out how to avoid plastic toys containing chemicals that may cause possible health risks to their children.


Environmental policies not always bad for business, study finds

Critics claim environmental regulations hurt productivity and profits, but the reality is more nuanced, according to an analysis of environmental policies in China by a pair of Cornell economists.


Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 23, 2021 at 10:16am

Hedge plant effective at filtering automobile air pollutants

Researchers have found that the Cotoneaster franchetii (also known as Franchet's cotoneaster) hedge plant is effective at filtering automobile air pollutants. In their paper published in the journal Environments, they described experiments that involved testing different types of plants to find out which were best at filtering air pollution next to roadways.

The work is part of a 10-year ongoing research effort meant to better understand which plants might be the most useful in urban settings. They have been testing bushes, trees and shrubs that are commonly planted in urban to see which are the most effective against flooding and air pollution. Over that time span, they have tested a wide variety of hedges to see how well they can soak up air pollution generated by cars and trucks and have found that those with dense canopies and rough and hairy leaves, such as cotoneaster, are the most effective.

The team found that cotoneaster was 20% more effective at pulling pollutants out of the air on busy street sections than any other hedge that they studied. They acknowledge that they found little difference between hedges when testing on streets that did not have much traffic. They suggest this indicates that using different kinds of plants in different areas would make sense, both for home owners and city or town planners. They found that over the course of one week, a single 1-meter-long cotoneaster hedge was able to clean auto pollutants over the course of a 500-mile drive.

Because of its unique abilities, the researchers suggest that homeowners who have property abutting busy street sections plant cotoneaster to reduce the amount of pollution they are inhaling into their lungs every day. City planners could do likewise to reduce overall pollution levels in cities.

Tijana Blanuša et al. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Urban Hedges as Air Pollution Barriers: Importance of Sampling Method, Species Characteristics and Site Location, Environments (2020). DOI: 10.3390/environments7100081

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 23, 2021 at 10:11am

Russia detects first case of H5N8 avian flu in humans

Russia said Saturday that its scientists had detected the world's first case of transmission of the H5N8 strain of avian flu from birds to humans and had alerted the World Health Organization.

scientists at the Vektor laboratory had isolated the strain's genetic material from seven workers at a poultry farm in southern Russia, where an outbreak was recorded among the birds in December.

The workers did not suffer any serious health consequences, she added. They are believed to have caught the virus from poultry on the farm.

Information about the world's first case of transmission of the avian flu (H5N8) to humans has already been sent to the World Health Organization. 

There are different subtypes of avian influenza viruses.

While the highly contagious strain H5N8 is lethal for birds, it had never before been reported to have spread to humans.

The discovery of these mutations when the virus has not still acquired an ability to transmit from human to human gives us all, the entire world, time to prepare for possible mutations and react in an adequate and timely fashion.

People can get infected with avian and swine influenza viruses, such as bird flu subtypes A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) and swine flu subtypes such as A(H1N1).

According to the WHO, people usually get infected through direct contact with animals or contaminated environments, and there is no sustained transmission among humans.

H5N1 in people can cause severe illness and has a 60 percent mortality rate.

source: The Lancet

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 22, 2021 at 10:42am

Novel coronavirus affects male fertility levels: Study

City gynaecologists and fertility experts have found that the novel coronavirus has affected the fertility levels, particularly in men, as a majority of those infected hailed from the reproductive age.

As the body temperature is directly linked to the production of sperm, those suffering from Covid-19 with high fever, are at risk of infertility, though temporary. Fertility experts said fever has an impact on the parameters of sperm, including its motility and count. The worst-hit during the lockdown were the infertile couples as they could not have access to assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Even after relaxation in the lockdown, the access to the ART is limited.

The result of the study was published in the recent issue of ‘The Journal of Reproductive Health and Medicine’.

Novel coronavirus affects male fertility levels: Study

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 22, 2021 at 10:32am

No more popping pills, now just inhale your antibiotics!

You may not have to pop up azithromycin pills in the future. Instead, you will be able to simply inhale this most common antibiotic drug widely prescribed to treat respiratory tract infections of the nose, throat and lungs.

You may not have to pop up azithromycin pills in the future. Instead, you will be able to simply inhale this most common antibiotic drug widely prescribed to treat respiratory tract infections of the nose, throat and lungs.

Researchers of M S University’s Faculty of Pharmacy have received a patent for their invention of a liposomal dry powder inhaler (LDPI) of azithromycin. This invention will significantly reduce the side effects that the drug causes to people who consume it currently in pill form.

Azithromycin is a widely prescribed drug for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. But as the drug enters the stomach and blood, it causes a number of side effects. There has always been a demand for a formulation that can help the drug reach its target organ — the organ where the bacteria that is causing respiratory infection resides — without causing side effects.

The team developed the new formulation by encapsulating azithromycin within liposomes (used as a carrier), converting it into a dry powder by freeze-drying and filling it in capsules. Patients can easily take drug doses through dry powder inhalers.
The liposomal dry powder was evaluated using various in-vitro and animal studies. The in-vivo studies done on rats showed that the liposomes are retained in the lungs for a prolonged period of up to 12 hours with lesser presence in blood.

“These liposomes slowly released the loaded azithromycin into the lungs and thus avoided the exposure of the drug to stomach or blood. This helps in building local drug concentrations required for maximizing effectiveness and minimizing side effects.

No more popping pills, now just inhale your antibiotics!



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