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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 11 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 573 articles posted here. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs peopel asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......185

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  thier children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

Being a woman is no obstacle in science if you are determined and have the will to succeed

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Monday. 150 Replies

 I came across this quote when I was in school. Since then I wanted to be like an eagle -…Continue

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There are no scientific superstitions

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Monday. 1 Reply

Q: Do scientists fall prey to superstitions? (Maybe we can call them scientific superstitions)Krishna: Scientists are human beings too.But our science training, if given in the right way, makes us…Continue

Don't try to grade intelligence, the effort will be an utter flop!

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Sunday. 2 Replies

Q: Who is the most intelligent person in the world after Stephen Hawkins, and what are the best measurements for intelligence?Krishna: Hmmm!Who told you Hawkins occupies the first position in the…Continue

Choking emergency : Heimlich maneuver

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Friday. 1 Reply

Choking emergency : Heimlich maneuverA step-by-step guide explaining what to do in a choking emergency.…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on September 10, 2021 at 11:09am

Exposure to traffic noise linked to higher dementia risk

Exposure to noise from traffic on roads and railways over a long period is associated with a higher risk of developing dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease, suggests a study published in The BMJ recently.

The researchers estimate that as many as 1,216 out of the 8,475 cases of dementia registered in Denmark in 2017 could be attributed to these noise exposures, indicating a great potential for dementia prevention through reduction in traffic related noise.

Worldwide, the number of people with dementia is expected to exceed 130 million by 2050, making it a costly and growing global health crisis. Besides well established risk factors, such as cardiovascular diseases and unhealthy lifestyle, environmental exposures may also play a role in the development of dementia.

Transportation noise is considered the second worst environmental risk factor for public health in Europe after air pollution, and around a fifth of the European population is exposed to transportation noise above the recommended level of 55 dB (decibels).

Studies have consistently linked transportation noise to various diseases and health conditions, such as coronary heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. There is, however, little research on transportation noise and dementia and findings are inconsistent.

To address this, researchers investigated the association between long term residential exposure to road traffic and railway noise and risk of dementia among two million adults aged over 60 and living in Denmark between 2004 and 2017.

The researchers estimated road traffic and railway noise at the most and least exposed sides (or façades) of all residential addresses in Denmark.

They then analyzed national health registers to identify cases of all-cause dementia and different types of dementia (Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and Parkinson's disease related dementia) over an average of 8.5 years.

They found 103,500 new cases of dementia during the study period.

After taking account of potentially influential factors related to residents and their neighborhoods, the researchers found that a 10-year average exposure to road traffic and railway noise at the most and least exposed sides of buildings was associated with a higher risk of all-cause dementia.

These associations showed a general pattern of higher risk with higher noise exposure, but with a leveling off or even small declines in risk at higher noise levels.

Further analysis by type of dementia showed both road traffic and railway noise were associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease—up to 27% higher for exposure to road traffic noise of 55 dB and up to 24% higher for exposure to railway noise of 50 dB compared with less than 40 dB.

However, only road traffic noise was associated with an increased risk of vascular dementia, and not railway noise.

 Residential exposure to transportation noise in Denmark and incidence of dementia: national cohort study, BMJ (2021). www.bmj.com/content/374/bmj.n1954

Editorial: Noise exposure and dementia: a rising concern in ageing populations, www.bmj.com/content/374/bmj.n2120

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-09-exposure-traffic-noise-linke...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on September 9, 2021 at 9:34am

Tea made with impure water tastes better

Chemical impurities in tap water can cause a thin film to form on the surface of a cup of tea, and these make it taste better than a drink made with pure water, according to researchers at ETH Zurich in Switzerland.

Pour yourself a cup of tea and leave it to cool slightly, and you may see a film on the surface that cracks like sea ice when you disturb the cup. There are many factors that affect the formation of this film, the researchers say, but the primary one is calcium carbonate in the water. When tap water contains a high amount of minerals such as calcium carbonate, it is called hard water.

“Tap water in many regions comes from limestone aquifers, where calcium carbonate, a harmless compound that can make water taste ‘crisper’, is found.

Other factors that affect the formation of this film include milk, sugar or lemon added to the tea, the brewing temperature, and the concentration of the tea.

The team studied how the strength of the film changed with water hardness by placing a metal device on the surface of the tea and rotating it. “The rotation of that device is carefully controlled, and the resistance to rotation that the film applies is what allows us to determine its strength.

They found that the more calcium carbonate in the water, the stronger the film woul.... “If you were to make a cup of tea in perfectly pure water, it would not form a film at all, but the tea would taste quite bitter

The team’s findings could be useful in industrial settings, where creating conditions to form a strong film could improve the shelf life in packaged tea drinks.

https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/5.0059760

https://www.sciencefocus.com/science/put-down-the-filter-tea-made-w...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on September 9, 2021 at 8:10am

COVID, vaccine misinformation spread by hundreds of websites, analysis finds

More than 500 websites have promoted misinformation about the coronavirus—including debunked claims about vaccines, according to a firm that rates the credibility of websites.

NewsGuard announced Wednesday that, of the more than 6,700 websites it has analyzed, 519 have published  about COVID-19. Some of the sites publish dubious health information or political conspiracy theories, while others were "created specifically to spread misinformation about COVID-19," the company says on its website.

It's become virtually impossible for people to tell the difference between a generally reliable site and an untrustworthy site. And that is why there is such a big business in publishing this information. They're all hoaxes that have gained traction, and we know that because we see them spreading from website to website. Some of the websites NewsGuard identified have become more popular online than trustworthy sources of information about COVID-19.

https://techxplore.com/news/2021-09-covid-vaccine-misinformation-hu...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on September 9, 2021 at 7:17am

Common medications accumulate in gut bacteria, which may reduce drug effectiveness and alter the gut microbiome

Common medications can accumulate in gut bacteria, a new study has found, altering bacterial function and potentially reducing the effectiveness of the drug. These interactions—seen for a variety of medications, such as depression, diabetes, and asthma drugs—could help researchers to better understand individual differences in drug effectiveness and side-effects, according to the study published in Nature.

It is known that bacteria can chemically modify some drugs, a process known as biotransformation. This study is the first to show that certain species of gut bacteria accumulate human drugs.

This could change the effectiveness of the  both directly, as the accumulation could reduce the availability of the drug to the body, and indirectly, as altered bacterial function and composition could be linked to .

The human gut naturally contains communities of hundreds of different species of bacteria, which are important in health and disease, called the . The composition of bacterial species varies significantly between people and has previously been shown to be associated with a wide range of conditions including obesity, immune response, and mental health.

In this study, the researchers grew 25 common gut bacteria and studied how they interacted with 15 drugs that are taken orally. The drugs were chosen to represent a range of different types of common drugs, including antidepressant medications, which are known to affect individuals dissimilarly and cause side effects such as gut problems and weight gain.

The researchers tested how each of the 15 drugs interacted with the selected bacterial strains—a total of 375 bacteria-drug tests.

They found 70 interactions between the bacteria and the drugs studied—of which 29 had not been previously reported.

While earlier research has shown bacteria can chemically modify drugs, when the scientists studied these interactions further, they found that for 17 of the 29 new interactions, the drug accumulated within the bacteria without being modified.

 Bioaccumulation of therapeutic drugs by human gut bacteria, Nature (2021). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03891-8 , www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03891-8

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-09-common-medications-accumulat...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on September 9, 2021 at 7:06am

Scientists create artificial cells that mimic living cells' ability to capture, process, and expel material

Researchers have developed artificial cell-like structures using inorganic matter that autonomously ingest, process, and push out material—recreating an essential function of living cells.

Their article, published in Nature, provides a blueprint for creating "cell mimics," with potential applications ranging from  to environmental science.

A fundamental function of living  is their ability to harvest energy from the environment to pump molecules in and out of their systems. When energy is used to move these molecules from areas of lower concentration to areas of higher concentration, the process is called active transport. Active transport allows cells to take in necessary molecules like glucose or amino acids, store energy, and extract waste.

For decades, researchers have been working to create artificial cells—engineered microscopic structures that emulate the features and behavior of biological cells. But these cell mimics tend to lack the ability to perform complex cellular processes like active transport.

In the Nature study, researchers describe a new, fully synthetic cell mimic that is one step closer to replicating the function of living cells. When deployed in mixtures of different particles, the cell mimics can perform active transport tasks by autonomously capturing, concentrating, storing, and delivering microscopic cargo. These artificial cells are fabricated using minimal ingredients and borrow no materials from biology.

To design the cell mimics, the researchers created a spherical membrane the size of a red blood cell using a polymer, a stand-in for the cellular membrane that controls what goes in and out of a cell. They pierced a microscopic hole into the spherical membrane creating a nano-channel through which matter can be exchanged, imitating a cell's protein channel.

But in order to perform the tasks required for active transport, the cell mimics needed a mechanism to power the cell-like structure to pull in and expel material. In a , mitochondria and ATP provide the necessary energy for active transport. In the cell mimic, the researchers added a chemically reactive component inside the nano-channel that, when activated by light, acts as a pump. When light hits the pump, it triggers a chemical reaction, turning the pump into a tiny vacuum and pulling cargo into the membrane. When the pump is switched off, the cargo is trapped and processed inside the cell mimic. And when the chemical reaction is reversed, the cargo is pushed out on demand.

 Transmembrane transport in inorganic colloidal cell mimics, Nature (2021). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03774-y , www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03774-y

https://phys.org/news/2021-09-scientists-artificial-cells-mimic-abi...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on September 8, 2021 at 1:32pm

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on September 8, 2021 at 1:30pm

The squid and its giant nerve fibre Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on September 8, 2021 at 1:07pm

NASA Testing Electric 'Air Taxi' Prototype Designed to Carry Passengers in The Sky

NASA is commonly thought of as America's space agency, but its name also emphasizes another research area. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is also America's civilian aerospace research organization. 

Electric Vertical Take-Off and Landing Aircraft

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on September 8, 2021 at 1:01pm

Hundreds of Medical Journals Just United Together to Issue a Brutally Frank Warning

Global warming is already affecting people's health so much that emergency action on climate change cannot be put on hold while the world deals with the COVID-19 pandemic, medical journals across the globe warned on Monday.

Health is already being harmed by global temperature increases and the destruction of the natural world," read an editorial published in more than 220 leading journals ahead of the COP26 climate summit in November.

Since the pre-industrial era, temperatures have risen around 1.1 degrees Celsius.

The editorial, written by the editors-in-chief of over a dozen journals including the Lancet, the East African Medical Journal, Brazil's Revista de Saude Publica and the International Nursing Review, said this had caused a plethora of health problems.

"In the past 20 years, heat-related mortality among people older than 65 years has increased by more than 50 percent," it read.

"Higher temperatures have brought increased dehydration and renal function loss, dermatological malignancies, tropical infections, adverse mental health outcomes, pregnancy complications, allergies, and cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality."

It also pointed to the decline in agricultural production, "hampering efforts to reduce undernutrition".

These effects, which hit those most vulnerable like minorities, children, and poorer communities hardest, are just the beginning, it warned.

https://www.bmj.com/content/374/bmj.n1734

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on September 8, 2021 at 12:47pm

New Mathematical Solutions to An Old Problem in Astronomy

 

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