Science, Art, Litt, Science based Art & Science Communication


Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

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     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 740 articles posted here. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs peopel asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28



Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53


part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...


BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  thier children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis


o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 


b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here:

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

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Discussion Forum

Qs on science and my replies - part 254

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Tuesday. 1 Reply

Q: Has any scientist proven what happens after death?Krishna: People imagine several things. Give sweet explanations to satisfy your craving emotions. And then ask science and scientists to prove…Continue

What is Nocebo Effect?

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jan 20. 2 Replies

In medicine, a nocebo (Latin for "I shall harm") is an inert substance that creates harmful effects in a patient. The nocebo effect is the adverse reaction experienced by a patient who receives a…Continue

Rationality declined decades ago: study finds

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jan 17. 1 Reply

Scientists have discovered that the increasing irrelevance of factual truth in public discourse is part of a groundswell trend that started decades ago.While the current "post-truth era" has taken…Continue

T cells artificially endowed with 2 cancer-seeking receptors aim to be an elite army of cancer killers

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jan 15. 1 Reply

Despite high remission rates for patients treated with T cells that are supercharged in laboratories into elite cancer warriors, there is still a considerable population of patients who eventually…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 5, 2021 at 12:07pm

Device instantly detects sepsis via sweat

 Every year, millions of  adults develop sepsis, a life-threatening complication that arises when the body has an overwhelming immune response to an infection. According sepsis causes more than 20 percent of all deaths worldwide.

A crucial aspect of treating sepsis is to catch it at an early stage when a patient’s infection is still curable. Current methods to diagnose sepsis, however, rely on tests that can take days to yield results, while early sepsis can turn into full-blown septic shock within only one hour after the first symptoms emerge.

This means that doctors often need to wait for the results of a test, and the results may not even be accurate if the patient developed a condition after the sample was taken.

The students consulted with sepsis survivors, scientists, and clinicians at the University of Rochester Medical Center to design a sepsis-sensing device, which they named “Bio-Spire,” a combination of “biology” and “perspire.” Bio-Spire is a biosensor that continuously monitors the levels of biomarkers in sweat. Unlike blood, sweat is a noninvasive medium to collect, and unlike saliva or urine, biomarkers in sweat can be continuously analyzed. The levels of biomarkers in blood and in sweat are correlated, so changes in the amount of biomarkers in sweat are indicative of changes in the blood.

That is, a change in biomarker levels in a patient’s sweat can signify a deterioration of the patient’s condition—and may signify sepsis.

Doctors use many different tools to diagnose patients, one of which is the presence and concentration of certain biomarkers—molecules such as proteins or sugar that are associated with a particular disease, condition, or biological process. There are several ways to measure biomarker concentrations, including test strips and lab-on-a-chip devices, but many of these approaches only show biomarker concentrations at one specific point in time. These methods can also be expensive, and many take hours to perform.

In order to address this problem, a team of 12 undergraduate students  developed a novel device that instantaneously diagnoses sepsis based on biomarkers in a person’s sweat. The device offers a noninvasive way to monitor sepsis in real-time and uses materials that are environmentally friendly and affordable, making the device easily deployable in low-income countries.

Bio-Spire is designed to collect a tiny amount of sweat from a patient’s skin and wick the sweat past an integrated set of electrodes covered in biomarker detectors. The biomarker detectors consist of short pieces of DNA receptors attached to a small sheet of graphene—an ultra-thin layer of material that is highly conductive. The students synthetically created their own graphene and DNA in an environmentally-friendly manner by using engineered biological components.

When the sleeve-like device is placed on a patient’s arm, biomarkers associated with sepsis bind to the DNA receptors, changing the conductivity of the graphene sheet and triggering an electrical resistance in the electrodes, which is then recorded on a computer. The students created software that displays the concentrations of sepsis biomarkers in real time, permitting health care workers to receive up-to-the-minute updates on a patient’s condition.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 5, 2021 at 11:18am

Pharmaceutical waste contaminates India's main rivers

India's major rivers are thick with heavy metals, dyes, toxic chemicals and pharmaceutical products, a study shows.

The study, published in December in the journal Science of the Total Environment, found high concentrations of pharmaceutical waste as well as toxic metals such as arsenic, zinc, chromium, lead and nickel in the Cauvery, a major river in southern India.

These  observations are alarming. The researchers' environmental risk assessment has shown that pharmaceutical contaminants pose medium to high risk to selected aquatic lifeforms of the riverine system.

Pharmaceutical products found in the river included anti-inflammatories like ibuprofen and diclofenac, anti-hypertensives such as atenolol and isoprenaline, enzyme inhibitors like perindopril, stimulants like caffeine, antidepressants such as carbamazepine, and antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin.

India is among the world's biggest producers of pharmaceutical drugs. Although there are regulations governing effluents from manufacturing units, there is very little real monitoring by regulators such as the state pollution control boards. For instance, the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board takes samples only once in every three months and only during the day whereas illegal dumping of effluents is often done at night.

"Clearly there is a need to ensure that wastewater treatment systems are working optimally to reduce the level of contaminants reaching the rivers," the researchers said.

Jayakumar Renganathan et al, Spatio-temporal distribution of pharmaceutically active compounds in the River Cauvery and its tributaries, South India, Science of The Total Environment (2021). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149340

Provided by SciDev.Net

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 5, 2021 at 11:12am

When variations in Earth's orbit drive biological evolution

Coccolithophores are microscopic algae that form tiny limestone plates, called coccoliths, around their single cells. The shape and size of coccoliths varies according to the species. After their death, coccolithophores sink to the bottom of the ocean and their coccoliths accumulate in sediments, which faithfully record the detailed evolution of these organisms over geological time.

A team of scientists led by CNRS researchers show, in an article published in Nature on December 1, 2021, that certain variations in Earth's orbit have influenced the evolution of coccolithophores. To achieve this, no less that 9 million coccoliths, spanning an interval of 2.8 million years and several locations in the tropical ocean, were measured and classified using automated microscope techniques and artificial intelligence.

The researchers observed that coccoliths underwent cycles of higher and lower diversity in size and shape, with rhythms of 100 and 400 thousand years. They also propose a cause: the more or less circular shape of Earth's orbit around the Sun, which varies at the same rhythms. Thus, when Earth's orbit is more circular, as is the case today (this is known as low eccentricity), the equatorial regions show little seasonal variation and species that are not very specialized dominate all the oceans. Conversely, as eccentricity increases and more pronounced seasons appear near the equator, coccolithophores diversify into many specialized species, but collectively produce less limestone.

Crucially, due to their abundance and , these organisms are responsible for half of the limestone (, partly composed of carbon) produced in the oceans and therefore play a major role in the carbon cycle and in determining  chemistry. It is therefore likely that the cyclic abundance patterns of these limestone producers played a key role in ancient climates, and may explain hitherto mysterious climate variations in past warm periods.

In other words, in the absence of ice, the biological evolution of micro-algae could have set the tempo of climates. This hypothesis remains to be confirmed.

Luc Beaufort, Cyclic evolution of phytoplankton forced by changes in tropical seasonality, Nature (2021). DOI: 10.1038/

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 5, 2021 at 11:08am

Safely delivering radiation to cancer patients in a 'FLASH'

Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have shown for the first time the potential for linear induction accelerators (LIAs) to deliver effective, targeted doses of "FLASH" radiation to cancer patients. The new technique selectively kills cancer cells with minimal damage to healthy cells. The approach is outlined in a Scientific Reports paper.

Efforts to deliver a rapid, high, targeted dose of therapy radiation, or FLASH radiotherapy (FLASH-RT) at the required depth, have required large, complex machines the size of gymnasiums and have so far proven impractical for clinical use. In the Scientific Reports paper, the authors note that LIAs powerful enough to deliver the necessary dose rate to cancer cells can be built only 3 meters long.

Researchers have combined technologies that were developed for weapons—either diagnostics or weapon design itself—and spinning off something that could potentially be a major breakthrough in cancer radiotherapy.

 Stephen E. Sampayan et al, Megavolt bremsstrahlung measurements from linear induction accelerators demonstrate possible use as a FLASH radiotherapy source to reduce acute toxicity, Scientific Reports (2021). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-95807-9

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 5, 2021 at 11:03am

Study links high cholesterol, cardiovascular disease to plastics

Plastics, part of modern life, are useful but can pose a significant challenge to the environment and may also constitute a health concern. Indeed, exposure to plastic-associated chemicals, such as base chemical bisphenol A and phthalate plasticizers, can increase the risk of human cardiovascular disease. What underlying mechanisms cause this, however, remain elusive.

Now in a mouse study,  researchers found a phthalate—a chemical used to make plastics more durable—led to increased plasma cholesterol levels. Dicyclohexyl phthalate, or DCHP, strongly binds to a receptor called pregnane X receptor, or PXR.

DCHP 'turns on' PXR in the gut, inducing the expression of key proteins required for cholesterol absorption and transport. Experiments show that DCHP elicits high cholesterol by targeting intestinal PXR signaling.

Mice exposed to DCHP had in their intestines higher circulating "ceramides"—a class of waxy lipid molecules associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk  in humans—in a way that was PXR-dependent.

This, too, points to the potentially important role of PXR in contributing to the harmful effects of plastic-associated chemicals on cardiovascular health in humans.

"Effects of dicyclohexyl phthalate exposure on PXR activation and lipid homeostasis in miceEnvironmental Health Perspectives (2021). "

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 5, 2021 at 10:57am

Engineers create perching bird-like robot

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 1, 2021 at 10:42am

Filtering microplastics trash from water with acoustic waves

Microplastics are released into the environment by cosmetics, clothing, and industrial processes or from larger plastic products as they break down naturally.

The pollutants eventually find their way into rivers and oceans, posing problems for marine life. Filtering and removing the small particles from water is a difficult task, but acoustic waves may provide a solution.

A research team used two speakers to create acoustic waves. The force produced by the waves separates the microplastics from the water by creating pressure on a tube of inflowing water. As the tube splits into three channels, the microplastic particles are pressed toward the center as the clean water flows toward the two outer channels.

The prototype device cleaned 150 liters per hour of polluted water and was tested with three different microplastics. Each plastic was filtered with a different efficiency, but all were above 56% efficient in pure water and 58% efficient in seawater. Acoustic frequency, speaker-to-pipe distance, and density of the water all affected the amount of force generated and therefore the efficiency.

The acoustic waves may impact marine life if the wave frequency is in the audible range. The group is currently studying this potential issue.

Source: News Agencies

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 1, 2021 at 10:18am

A research team developed mRNA delivery nanoparticles that mimic the flu virus's ability to do this. To make the nanoparticles, the researchers genetically engineered cells in the lab to express the hemagglutinin protein on their cell membranes. They then separated the membranes from the cells, broke them into tiny pieces, and coated them onto nanoparticles made from a biodegradable polymer that has been pre-packed with mRNA molecules inside.

The finished product is a flu virus-like nanoparticle that can get into a cell, break out of the endosome, and free its mRNA payload to do its job: Instruct the cell to produce proteins.

The researchers tested the nanoparticles in mice. The flu-virus like nano particles effectively delivered their mRNA payloads into cells in vivo.

 Joon Ho Park et al, Virus‐Mimicking Cell Membrane‐Coated Nanoparticles for Cytosolic Delivery of mRNA, Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2021). DOI: 10.1002/anie.202113671

Part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 1, 2021 at 10:16am

Flu virus shells could improve delivery of mRNA into cells

Nanoengineers  have developed a new and potentially more effective way to deliver messenger RNA (mRNA) into cells. Their approach involves packing mRNA inside nanoparticles that mimic the flu virus—a naturally efficient vehicle for delivering genetic material such as RNA inside cells.

The new mRNA delivery nanoparticles are described in a paper published recently in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition.

The work addresses a major challenge in the field of drug delivery: Getting large biological drug molecules safely into cells and protecting them from organelles called endosomes. These tiny acid-filled bubbles inside the cell serve as barriers that trap and digest large molecules that try to enter. In order for biological therapeutics to do their job once they are inside the cell, they need a way to escape the endosomes.

Current mRNA delivery methods do not have very effective endosomal escape mechanisms, so the amount of mRNA that actually gets released into cells and shows effect is very low. The majority of them are wasted when they get administered. Achieving efficient endosomal escape would be a game changer for mRNA vaccines and therapies. If you can get more mRNA into cells, this means you can take a much lower dose of an mRNA vaccine, and this could reduce side effects while achieving the same efficacy. It could also improve delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) into cells, which is used in some forms of gene therapy.

In nature, viruses do a very good job of escaping the endosome. The influenza A virus, for example, has a special protein on its surface called hemagglutinin, that when activated by acid inside the endosome, triggers the virus to fuse its membrane with the endosomal membrane. This opens up the endosome, enabling the virus to release its genetic material  into the host cell without getting destroyed.

part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 30, 2021 at 9:18am

Living robots that can reproduce!

To persist, life must reproduce.

Over billions of years, organisms have evolved many ways of replicating, from budding plants to sexual animals to invading viruses.

Now scientists have discovered an entirely new form of biological reproduction—and applied their discovery to create the first-ever, self-replicating living robots.

The same team that built the first living robots ("Xenobots," assembled from frog cells—reported in 2020) has discovered that these computer-designed and hand-assembled organisms can swim out into their tiny dish, find , gather hundreds of them together, and assemble "baby" Xenobots inside their Pac-Man-shaped "mouth"—that, a few days later, become new Xenobots that look and move just like themselves.

And then these new Xenobots can go out, find cells, and build copies of themselves. Again and again.

Sam Kriegman el al., "A scalable pipeline for designing reconfigurable organisms," PNAS (2019).


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