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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 2 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 740 articles posted here. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs peopel asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......185

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  thier children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

Qs on science and my replies - part 254

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Tuesday. 1 Reply

Q: Has any scientist proven what happens after death?Krishna: People imagine several things. Give sweet explanations to satisfy your craving emotions. And then ask science and scientists to prove…Continue

What is Nocebo Effect?

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jan 20. 2 Replies

In medicine, a nocebo (Latin for "I shall harm") is an inert substance that creates harmful effects in a patient. The nocebo effect is the adverse reaction experienced by a patient who receives a…Continue

Rationality declined decades ago: study finds

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jan 17. 1 Reply

Scientists have discovered that the increasing irrelevance of factual truth in public discourse is part of a groundswell trend that started decades ago.While the current "post-truth era" has taken…Continue

T cells artificially endowed with 2 cancer-seeking receptors aim to be an elite army of cancer killers

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jan 15. 1 Reply

Despite high remission rates for patients treated with T cells that are supercharged in laboratories into elite cancer warriors, there is still a considerable population of patients who eventually…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 18, 2022 at 9:51am

The circadian clock in heart failure

Disrupting circadian rhythms, which change naturally on a 24-hour cycle, has been implicated in heart disease, but it is unclear how it leads to the condition. A research team investigated the function of the protein Rev-erbα/β, a key component of the circadian clock, on heart disease development in animal models and human patients.

The team reports in the journal Circulation that Rev-erbα/β in cardiomyocytes mediates a normal metabolic rhythm that enables the cells to prefer lipids as a source of energy during the animal's resting time, daytime for mice. Removing Rev-erbα/β disrupts this rhythm, reduces the cardiomyocytes' ability to use lipids in the resting time and leads to progressive dilated cardiomyopathy and lethal heart failure.

They found that the Rev-erbα/β gene is highly expressed only during the sleep hours, and its activity is associated with fat and sugar metabolisms.

The heart responds differently to different sources of energy, depending on the time of the day. In the resting phase, which for humans is at night and for mice in the day, the heart uses fatty acids that are released from fats as the main source of energy. In the active phase, which is during the day for people and at night for mice, the heart has some resistance to dietary carbohydrates. The researchers found that without Rev-erbα/β, hearts have metabolic defects that limit the use of fatty acids when resting, and there is overuse of sugar in the active phase.

Scientists also found that when Rev-erbα/β knockout hearts cannot burn fatty acids efficiently in the resting phase, then they don't have enough energy to beat. That energy deficiency would probably lead to changes in the heart that resulted in progressive dilated cardiomyopathy.

To test this hypothesis, the researchers determined whether restoring the defect in fatty acid use would improve the condition.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 17, 2022 at 10:14am

How Salmonella overcomes host resistance

 The microbial species living in our gastrointestinal tract — the gut microbiota — help protect us against invading pathogens. One way they exert this “colonization resistance” is by producing antimicrobial products, such as the fatty acid propionate. The gut microbiota benefits the host by limiting enteric pathogen expansion (colonization resistance), partially via the production of inhibitory metabolites. Propionate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by microbiota members, is proposed to mediate colonization resistance against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm).

Propionate is used in agricultural animals to limit infection by varieties of Salmonella bacteria, which cause food poisoning in humans.

Now, however, researchers have demonstrated that Salmonella can turn the tables and use propionate for its own purposes. The researchers showed in animal models that in the presence of inflammation, Salmonella changes its metabolism and uses propionate as a source of energy. They demonstrated that propionate metabolism supports expansion of Salmonella in the inflamed gut.

The findings, published in Cell Reports, show that in addition to promoting colonization resistance, propionate can fuel Salmonella growth, changing the understanding of propionate’s role and complicating its use as an antimicrobial treatment.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34986344/

https://researchnews.cc/news/11098/Salmonella-overcomes-host-resist...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 17, 2022 at 9:58am

Tiger Shark Migrations Altered by Climate Change

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 16, 2022 at 11:35am

Your gut senses the difference between real sugar and artificial sweetener

 Your taste buds may or may not be able to tell real sugar from a sugar substitute like Splenda, but there are cells in your intestines that can and do distinguish between the two sweet solutions. And they can communicate the difference to your brain in milliseconds.

Not long after the sweet taste receptor was identified in the mouths of mice 20 years ago, scientists attempted to knock those taste buds out. But they were surprised to find that mice could still somehow discern and prefer natural sugar to artificial sweetener, even without a sense of taste.

The answer to this riddle lies much further down in the digestive tract, at the upper end of the gut just after the stomach, according to research.

The researchers have  identified the cells that make us eat sugar, and they are in the gut. The sensing cells are in the upper reaches of the gut. 

Having discovered a gut cell called the neuropod cell, researchers have been pursuing this cell’s critical role as a connection between what’s inside the gut and its influence in the brain. The gut talks directly to the brain, changing our eating behaviour. And in the long run, these findings may lead to entirely new ways to treat diseases.

Originally termed enteroendrocrine cells because of their ability to secrete hormones, specialized neuropod cells can communicate with neurons via rapid synaptic connections and are distributed throughout the lining of the upper gut. In addition to producing relatively slow-acting hormone signals, the  researchers have shown that these cells also produce fast-acting neurotransmitter signals that reach the vagus nerve and then the brain within milliseconds.

 These latest findings further show that neuropods are sensory cells of the nervous system just like taste buds in the tongue or the retinal cone cells in the eye that help us see colors. They sense traces of sugar versus sweetener and then they release different neurotransmitters that go into different cells in the vagus nerve, and ultimately, the animal knows ‘this is sugar’ or ‘this is sweetener.’”

Using lab-grown organoids from mouse and human cells to represent the small intestine and duodenum (upper gut), the researchers showed in a small experiment that real sugar stimulated individual neuropod cells to release glutamate as a neurotransmitter. Artificial sugar triggered the release of a different neurotransmitter, ATP.

Using a technique called optogenetics, the scientists were then able to turn the neuropod cells on and off in the gut of a living mouse to show whether the animal’s preference for real sugar was being driven by signals from the gut.

Sugar has both taste and nutritive value and the gut is able to identify both.
Many people struggle with sugar cravings, and now we have a better understanding of how the gut senses sugars (and why artificial sweeteners don’t curb those cravings).

  1. Kelly L. Buchanan, Laura E. Rupprecht, M. Maya Kaelberer, Atharva Sahasrabudhe, Marguerita E. Klein, Jorge A. Villalobos, Winston W. Liu, Annabelle Yang, Justin Gelman, Seongjun Park, Polina Anikeeva, Diego V. Bohórquez. The preference for sugar over sweetener depends on a gut sensor cell. Nature Neuroscience, 2022; DOI: 10.1038/s41593-021-00982-7

https://researchnews.cc/news/11088/Your-gut-senses-the-difference-b...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 15, 2022 at 8:53am
ResearchNews Videos
Temperature Record 101: How We Know What We Know about Climate Change
Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 15, 2022 at 8:38am

Being in space destroys more red blood cells

A world-first study has revealed how space travel can cause lower red blood cell counts, known as space anemia. Analysis of 14 astronauts showed their bodies destroyed 54 percent more red blood cells in space than they normally would on Earth, according to a study published in Nature Medicine.

Space anemia has consistently been reported when astronauts returned to Earth since the first space missions, but we didn't know why. This study shows that upon arriving in space, more red blood cells are destroyed, and this continues for the entire duration of the astronaut's mission.

Before this study, space anemia was thought to be a quick adaptation to fluids shifting into the astronaut's upper body when they first arrived in space. Astronauts lose 10 percent of the liquid in their blood vessels this way. It was thought astronauts rapidly destroyed 10 percent of their red blood cells to restore the balance, and that red blood cell control was back to normal after 10 days in space.

Now it was found that  the red blood cell destruction was a primary effect of being in space, not just caused by fluid shifts. They demonstrated this by directly measuring red blood cell destruction in 14 astronauts during their six-month space missions.

On Earth, our bodies create and destroy 2 million red blood cells every second. The researchers found that astronauts were destroying 54 percent more red blood cells during the six months they were in space, or 3 million every second. These results were the same for both female and male astronauts.

This discovery was made thanks to techniques and methods researchers developed to accurately measure red blood cell destruction. These methods were then adapted to collect samples aboard the International Space Station. They were able to precisely measure the tiny amounts of carbon monoxide in the breath samples from astronauts. One molecule of carbon monoxide is produced every time one molecule of heme, the deep-red pigment in red blood cells, is destroyed.

Trudel, G et al, Hemolysis contributes to anemia during long-duration space flight. Nat Med (2022). doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01637-7

https://phys.org/news/2022-01-space-red-blood-cells.html?utm_source...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 15, 2022 at 8:23am

Copper-based chemicals may be contributing to ozone depletion

Copper released into the environment from fungicides, brake pads, antifouling paints on boats and other sources may be contributing significantly to stratospheric ozone depletion, according to a new study .

In a paper appearing this week in the journal Nature Communications, UC Berkeley geochemists show that copper in  and seawater acts as a catalyst to turn  into both  bromide and methyl chloride, two potent halocarbon compounds that destroy ozone. Sunlight worsens the situation, producing about 10 times the amount of these methyl halides.

The findings answer, at least in part, a long-standing mystery about the origin of much of the methyl bromide and methyl chloride in the stratosphere. Since the worldwide ban on chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants and brominated halons used in fire extinguishers starting in 1989, these methyl halides have become the new dominant sources of ozone-depleting bromine and chlorine in the stratosphere. As the long-lived CFCs and halons slowly disappear from the atmosphere, the role of methyl halides increases.

Yi Jiao et al, Application of copper(II)-based chemicals induces CH3Br and CH3Cl emissions from soil and seawater, Nature Communications (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-27779-3

https://phys.org/news/2022-01-copper-based-chemicals-contributing-o...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 15, 2022 at 8:14am

Strong evidence shows Sixth Mass Extinction of global biodiversity in progress

The history of life on Earth has been marked five times by events of mass biodiversity extinction caused by extreme natural phenomena. Today, many experts warn that a Sixth Mass Extinction crisis is underway, this time entirely caused by human activities.

A comprehensive assessment of evidence of this ongoing extinction event was published recently in the journal Biological Reviews by biologists .

Drastically increased rates of species extinctions and declining abundances of many animal and plant populations are well documented, yet some deny that these phenomena amount to mass extinction. This denial is based on a biased view of the crisis which focuses on mammals and birds and ignores invertebrates, which of course constitute the great majority of biodiversity.

By extrapolating from estimates obtained for land snails and slugs, biologists estimated that since the year 1500, Earth could already have lost between 7.5 and 13% of the two million known species on Earth—a staggering 150,000 to 260,000 species.

Including invertebrates was key to confirming that we are indeed witnessing the onset of the Sixth Mass Extinction in Earth's history.

The situation is not the same everywhere, however. Although marine species face significant threats, there is no evidence that the crisis is affecting the oceans to the same extent as the land. On land, island species, such as those of the Hawaiian Islands, are much more affected than continental species. And the rate of extinction of plants seems lower than that of terrestrial animals.

To fight the crisis, various conservation initiatives have been successful for certain charismatic animals. But these initiatives cannot target all species, and they cannot reverse the overall trend of species extinction. Nonetheless, it is essential to continue such efforts, to continue to cultivate a wonder for nature, and to document biodiversity before it disappears.

Robert H. Cowie et al, The Sixth Mass Extinction: fact, fiction or speculation?, Biological Reviews (2022). DOI: 10.1111/brv.12816

https://phys.org/news/2022-01-strong-evidence-sixth-mass-extinction...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 14, 2022 at 10:59am

A mysterious new way of producing oxygen
Researchers have discovered that some microbes that live in the deep sea produce oxygen in a way never seen before. The surprising species, Nitrosopumilus maritimus, uses a common method to generate energy: the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. But when researchers sealed the microbes in airtight containers, without light or oxygen, they were still somehow able to produce O2. The findings could have implications for everything from detecting the signs of life to determining how bacteria might adapt to a drop in ocean oxygen caused by climate change.


This has only been found previously in NC10 bacteria, which break up nitric oxide into nitrogen and oxygen and use the oxygen to oxidise methane. However, the NC10 bacteria are not known to release oxygen. https://www.chemistryworld.com/news/single-celled-marine-organism-f...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 14, 2022 at 10:53am

How to image atoms

 

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