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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 10 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 845 articles posted here in this group. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......185

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  their children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

 A+. sci-com-what-makes-a-story-news-worthy-in-science

 B+. is-a-perfect-language-important-in-writing-science-stories

C+. https://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum/topics/sci-com-how-much-entertainment-is-too-much-while-communicating-sc

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

How immune cells learn to differentiate between friend and foe

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 11 hours ago. 1 Reply

The human immune system is a nearly perfect defense mechanism. It protects the body from disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens. It detects dangerous tumors and eradicates them. It…Continue

Struggling with positive thinking? Research shows grumpy moods can actually be useful

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday. 1 Reply

Struggling with positive thinking? Research shows grumpy moods can actually be useful!As psychiatry, which uses medical and biological methods to treat mental disorders, …Continue

How do scientists stimulate their minds?

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday. 1 Reply

Q: How do scientists stimulate their minds?Krishna: If you have to stimulate your mind over and over again, you cannot be a good scientist!A scientific mind breathes, eats, sleeps, drinks, reads,…Continue

Artificial photosynthesis can produce food without sunshine!

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Friday. 1 Reply

You must have studied in your school textbooks that photosynthesis by plants is necessary for food production. Now scientists are rewriting this story!Photosynthesis has evolved in plants for…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 18, 2022 at 9:12am

Electrons take the fast and slow lanes at the same time

Imagine a road with two lanes in each direction. One lane is for slow cars, and the other is for fast ones. For electrons moving along a quantum wire, researchers have discovered that there are also two "lanes," but electrons can take both at the same time!

Current in a wire is carried by the flow of electrons. When the wire is very narrow (one-dimensional, 1D) then electrons cannot overtake each other, as they strongly repel each other. Current, or energy, is carried instead by waves of compression as one particle pushes on the next.

It has long been known that there are two types of excitation for electrons, as in addition to their charge they have a property called . Spin and charge excitations travel at fixed, but different speeds, as predicted by the Tomonaga-Luttinger model many decades ago. However, theorists are unable to calculate what precisely happens beyond only small perturbations, as the interactions are too complex. The Cambridge team has measured these speeds as their energies are varied, and find that a very simple picture emerges (now published in the journal Science Advances). Each type of excitation can have low or high kinetic energy, like cars on a road, with the well-known formula E=1/2 mv2, which is a parabola. But for spin and charge the masses m are different, and, since charges repel and so cannot occupy the same state as another charge, there is twice as wide a range of momentum for charge as for spin. The results measure energy as a function of magnetic field, which is equivalent to momentum or speed v, showing these two energy parabolas, which can be seen in places all the way up to five times the highest energy occupied by electrons in the system.

It's as if the cars (like charges) are traveling in the slow lane but their passengers (like spins) are going more quickly, in the fast lane! Even when the cars and passengers slow down or speed up, they still remain separate!

These results now open the question of whether this spin-charge separation of the whole electron sea remains robust beyond 1D, e.g., in high-temperature superconducting materials. It may also now be applied to logic devices that harness spin (spintronics), which offer a drastic reduction (by three orders of magnitude!) of the energy consumption of a transistor, simultaneously improving our understanding of quantum matter as well as offering a new tool for engineering quantum materials

Pedro M. T. Vianez et al, Observing separate spin and charge Fermi seas in a strongly correlated one-dimensional conductor, Science Advances (2022). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abm2781

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 18, 2022 at 8:40am

Which cells are involved in heart repair and how they communicate with each other

Thousands of people suffer heart attacks every year. In this case, the heart muscle is no longer supplied with sufficient blood and oxygen, and part of the heart muscle tissue dies and becomes scarred. The consequences can range from massive cardiac insufficiency to heart failure. Unlike the liver, the heart of an adult human being cannot regenerate. However, it is able to initiate repair processes. Exactly how these repair processes take place has not been known until now. Therefore, there are still no drugs that can specifically promote healing.

Now a research team has found out which cells are involved in heart repair and how they communicate with each other. The researchers have discovered a new messenger substance that controls wound healing, thus revealing an approach for a new therapy. The research has been published in Science.

The focus of the study is the receptor KIT. The protein is produced by various cells, including the hematopoietic stem cells  in the bone marrow. Here, KIT plays an important role as a binding site for the so-called stem cell factor. This messenger substance activates the KIT-positive stem cells and causes them to develop into the various cells of the blood. KIT-positive cells are also found in the heart.

"However, these are not stem cells, as long suspected, but vascular cells. The KIT-positive vascular cells ensure that new heart vessels form after a heart attack. However, the stem cell factor necessary for KIT activation can barely be detected in the heart. The researchers have now resolved this contradiction. They discovered a new messenger substance in the heart that can also bind precisely to the KIT receptor and set the repair process in motion: the protein meteorin-like (METRNL).

After a heart attack, the immune system reacts with an inflammatory response . The inflammatory cells produce METRNL, which stimulates the KIT-positive vascular cells to form new blood vessels.

Studies in the mouse model showed that without METRNL, heart repair no longer worked. In contrast, when mice were treated with METRNL, new vessels formed in the infarct area. This alleviates scarring and prevents severe heart failure.

The newly discovered messenger substance could now be the decisive building block to a drug that specifically supports heart repair.

 Marc R. Reboll et al, Meteorin-like promotes heart repair through endothelial KIT receptor tyrosine kinase, Science (2022). DOI: 10.1126/science.abn3027

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 17, 2022 at 12:21pm

Climate change catastrophe: Phytoplankton Productivity Down 65%

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 16, 2022 at 11:10am

A Common Epilepsy Drug Causes Birth Defects, And We May Finally Know Why

Valproic acid – a drug commonly used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder – can cause birth defects and developmental disorders if taken during pregnancy, but the reason why has long been a mystery.

Now, in a study using mice and human tissue, scientists discovered that the medication locks some embryonic cells into a suspended state where they can't properly grow or divide.

By forcing key stem cellss into this state, called senescence, valproic acid may disrupt brain development in the womb and therefore cause cognitive and developmental disorders down the line, according to the study, published Tuesday (June 14) in the journal PLOS Biology.

An estimated 30 to 40 percent of infants exposed to the drug in the womb develop cognitive impairments or autism spectrum disorder, the study authors noted in their report, and these laboratory studies hint at why that happens. 

In a subset of affected children, valproic acid exposure can also cause birth defects beyond the brain, including heart malformations and spina bifida, where part of the spinal column doesn't form properly and thus leaves the spinal cord exposed.

However, the new study suggests that these physical birth defects, though also linked to valproic acid, are triggered by a different mechanism than the cognitive impairment.

https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pb...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 16, 2022 at 9:27am

Gender Inclusive Science Communication-Opportunities & Challenges

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 16, 2022 at 8:56am

New work upends understanding of how blood is formed

The origins of our blood may not be quite what we thought. Using cellular "barcoding" in mice, a groundbreaking study finds that blood cells originate not from one type of mother cell, but two, with potential implications for blood cancers, bone marrow transplant, and immunology.

Till now people thought that  most of our blood comes from a very small number of cells that eventually become blood stem cells, also known as hematopoietic stem cells. Scientists are now  surprised to find another group of progenitor cells that do not come from stem cells. They make most of the blood in fetal life until young adulthood, and then gradually start decreasing. 

The researchers are now following up to see if the findings also apply to humans. If so, these cells, known as embryonic multipotent progenitor cells (eMPPs), could potentially inform new treatments for boosting aging people's immune systems. They could also shed new light on blood cancers, especially those in children, and help make bone marrow transplants more effective.

Researchers applied a barcoding technique they developed several years ago and documented in Cell. Using either an enzyme known as transposase or CRISPR gene editing, they inserted unique genetic sequences into embryonic mouse cells in such a way that all the cells descended from them also carried those sequences. This enabled the team to track the emergence of all the different types of blood cells and where they came from, all the way to adulthood.

Through barcoding, the researchers found that eMPPs, as compared with blood stem cells, are a more abundant source of most lymphoid cells important to the immune responses, such as B cells and T cells. They think the decrease in eMPPs that they observed with age may explain why people's immunity weakens as they get older.They are now  trying to understand why these cells peter out in middle age, which could potentially allow us to manipulate them with the goal of rejuvenating the immune system.

In theory, there could be two approaches: extending the life of eMPP cells, perhaps through growth factors or immune signaling molecules, or treating blood stem cells with gene therapy or other approaches to make them more like eMPPs.

Finally, the recognition that there are two types of mother cells in the blood could revolutionize bone marrow transplant. 

 Fernando Camargo, Lifelong multilineage contribution by embryonic-born blood progenitors, Nature (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-04804-zwww.nature.com/articles/s41586-022-04804-z

Sarah Bowling et al, An Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 Mouse Line for Simultaneous Readout of Lineage Histories and Gene Expression Profiles in Single Cells, Cell (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.048

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 15, 2022 at 10:29am

Shedding light on how bacteria communicate their way to causing infection

Scientists have identified proteins that prevent a bacterial cell from becoming misguided by its own messaging, allowing it to instead wait for collective communication from its group. The research is important because understanding this type of signaling, known as quorum sensing and integral to bacterial pathogens, opens the door to potential new drugs that can disrupt it and thwart infection. Findings were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 

Sometimes  single-celled organisms need to work together with other cells.  Bacteria and other single-celled microbes can coordinate behaviors and act as a group via quorum sensing, in which cells produce and sense a small chemical signal that is shared within the population. As the signal is released from cells and reaches a high enough concentration in their environment, a quorum is achieved—certain genes are simultaneously activated and specific group behaviors are set in motion.

It's a strength-in-numbers approach that allows bacteria to join forces to do things they could not do by themselves, like causing infection in animals and plants, acquiring certain nutrients and competing against other microbes.

Bacterial infection often involves toxins that only harm the host at high levels, when produced by all bacterial cells at once. 

A major unresolved question about quorum sensing, the researchers said, has been why the signal that's produced inside an individual cell is not sensed by that same cell before it is released, spurring the cell into premature, solo action.
What prevents signal 'short-circuiting' from happening? A set of proteins called antiactivators are crucial for short-circuit prevention. The proteins work as a quorum sensing "tuner" by causing cells to be less sensitive to the quorum signal.

This research shows how bacteria put the brakes on quorum sensing to achieve true communication in a group.

In addition to helping the quest for new antibiotics that can inhibit quorum sensing in bacterial pathogens, the findings also provide background knowledge useful for the engineering of cells with new properties in a field called synthetic biology.

Antiactivators prevent self-sensing in quorum sensing, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2022). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2201242119.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 15, 2022 at 9:57am

A few proteins form a little barrel, and as the protein is threaded through that little cylinder, it gets degraded. This inactivates and breaks down the protein. Many proteasomes are present in cells at any given time, he added, but what makes this particular proteasome (labeled 20S) special is that it can accept proteins that are already somewhat misfolded and would not fit in the other cellular trash cans.

The limiting cap present on many proteasomes is not there in the BAG2 condensates. These promising results could point to a way to interrupt the development of Alzheimer's disease, which is marked by an accumulation of misfolded tau.

Daniel C. Carrettiero et al, Stress routes clients to the proteasome via a BAG2 ubiquitin-independent degradation condensate, Nature Communications (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-30751-4

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 15, 2022 at 9:56am

Scientists discover and characterize a novel membraneless organelle that could play a role in Alzheimer's treatment

Researchers  have discovered a novel organelle—a previously unknown cell structure whose function it is to help clean up faulty proteins in times of stress and keep cells functioning in top condition. Optimizing this membraneless organelle, which they call a BAG2 condensate, could lead to treatments for conditions that are the result of misfolded proteins, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. Their results are reported in a paper  and published in the journal Nature Communications.

People have known for quite a while that are a few objects floating around in cells that don't have membranes. And it's never been clear how they're held together, what they are and what they're doing until relatively recently.

Thanks to advanced imaging techniques, scientists have uncovered structures that were once invisible, revealing cells for the truly complex and sophisticated systems that they are.

Of particular interest are biomolecular condensates, which don't have the recognizable cell membrane enclosure, but instead, are separated from the surrounding cytoplasm by a difference in density that can be loosely compared to a drop of oil in water. This  creates a specialized, relatively concentrated environment for certain functions and reactions. For example, a stress granule is a membraneless organelle that appears when the cell is under stress—maybe there's too much glucose, maybe it's too hot or cold, maybe the cell is experiencing dehydration—and its job is to sweep up RNA floating around in the cytoplasm, storing those genetic instructions and pausing their translation into proteins. If your cell is under stress, you want to shut down making proteins so you can really conserve your energy and get past the stress.

But that's only part of the picture, according to the researchers.

When there's stress, what happens to the proteins that are already in the cell?. If they're under those stress conditions, some of those proteins could get damaged and they could misfold." Misfolds of the tau , for example, can become pathological and turn into the  that characterize Alzheimer's disease.

This is where the researchers' newly discovered BAG2 condensate comes in. Named for the BAG2 protein that it contains, the organelle, they found, is capable of sweeping up these faulty proteins in the cytoplasm and stuffing them into a proteasome—the cell's version of a trash can—located in the organelle.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 14, 2022 at 12:39pm

Nanoparticle sensor can distinguish between viral and bacterial pne...

Many different types of bacteria and viruses can cause pneumonia, but there is no easy way to determine which microbe is causing a particular patient's illness. This uncertainty makes it harder for doctors to choose effective treatments because the antibiotics commonly used to treat bacterial pneumonia won't help patients with viral pneumonia. In addition, limiting the use of antibiotics is an important step toward curbing antibiotic resistance.

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Bacterial intimacy insights could help tackle antimicrobial resistance

One of the primary ways harmful bacteria acquire resistance to antibiotics is by receiving DNA from other bacteria that are already resistant. This DNA exchange is made via a process called conjugation, akin to bacterial sex, whereby two bacteria form an intimate attachment, and one transfers a packet of DNA to the other.

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Shedding light on how bacteria communicate their way to causing inf...

Oregon State University scientists have identified proteins that prevent a bacterial cell from becoming misguided by its own messaging, allowing it to instead wait for collective communication from its group.

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Polluted air cuts global life expectancy by two years

Microscopic air pollution caused mostly by burning fossil fuels shortens lives worldwide by more than two years, researchers reported Tuesday.

 

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