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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 6 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

“Science is not a subject you studied in school. It’s life. We 're brought into existence by it!"

There are about 1017 articles posted here in this group. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......185

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  their children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

 A+. sci-com-what-makes-a-story-news-worthy-in-science

 B+. is-a-perfect-language-important-in-writing-science-stories

C+. https://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum/topics/sci-com-how-much-entertainment-is-too-much-while-communicating-sc

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

Scientists uncover biological explanation for why upper respiratory infections are more common in colder temperatures

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday. 1 Reply

Researchers have discovered a previously unidentified immune response inside the nose that fights off viruses responsible for upper respiratory infections. Further testing has revealed this…Continue

Qs people asked on science and my replies to them - Part 273

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday. 1 Reply

Q: What is the name of the yeast that contributes to cyclosporin A?Krishna: Cyclosporines are a member of the group of cyclic peptides and are composed of 11 amino acids. Cyclosporine A is the major…Continue

Face-ism: The problem that makes some make extreme judgements about people they encounter

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Monday. 1 Reply

You've finally got an interview for your dream job. Dozens of applications, dozens of rejection letters – but now you've got a shot at the job you really wanted. In you go. Maybe you shake hands with…Continue

Breakaway breast cancer cells can travel to the brain: Scientists are tracking their path to block entry

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Sunday. 1 Reply

One of the most puzzling—and devastating—aspects of cancer is its potentially lethal wanderlust, the spread of the disease from a primary tumor to a new and distant site.The process is formally…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 23, 2022 at 9:39am

The interplay between epidemics, prevention information, and mass media

When an epidemic strikes, more than just infections spread. As cases mount, information about the disease, how to spot it, and how to prevent it propagates rapidly among people in affected areas as well. Relatively little is known, however, about the interplay between the course of epidemics and this diffusion of information to the public.

A pair of researchers developed a model that examines epidemics through two lenses—the spread of disease and the spread of information—to understand how reliable information can be better disseminated during these events. 

They report their two-layered model can predict the effects of mass media and infection prevention information on the epidemic threshold.

To tackle their question, the researchers' model compares the interactions between two layers of information. The first is the transmission of the disease itself, propagated through physical contact between people. The second occupies the information space of social networks, where different voices are sharing the do's and don'ts of infection prevention, called positive and negative information respectively. The model provides a set of equations that can be used to calculate the epidemic threshold using a technique called microscopic Markov chains. Central to this calculation is the time delay between becoming infected and recovering. The longer it takes for patients to recover from an infection, they found, the less likely a patient is cured, leading to a lower recovery rate and making it easier for a disease to break out. Disseminating effective prevention practices and using mass media, however, can increase the epidemic threshold, making it more difficult for the infection to spread. They simulate this by reducing the time delays related to recovery, which boosts recovery rates.

 The impact of positive and negative information on SIR-like epidemics in delayed multiplex networks, Chaos An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science (2022). DOI: 10.1063/5.0126799

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 23, 2022 at 9:34am

Scientists unlock nature's secret to super-selective binding

 Researchers have discovered that it is not just molecular density, but also pattern and structural rigidity, that control super-selective binding interactions between nanomaterials and protein surfaces. The breakthrough could help optimize existing approaches to virus prevention and cancer detection.

So much of biology comes down to the biophysical process of binding: making a strong connection between one or more groups of atoms—known as ligands—to their corresponding receptor molecule on a surface. A binding event is the first fundamental process that allows a virus to infect a host, or chemotherapy to fight cancer. But binding interactions—at least, our understanding of them—have a "Goldilocks problem": too few ligands on one molecule makes it impossible for it to stably bind with the correct target, while too many can result in undesirable side-effects.

When binding is triggered by a threshold density of target receptors, scientists call this 'super-selective' binding, which is key to preventing random interactions that could dysregulate biological function. 

Since nature typically doesn't overcomplicate things, researchers wanted to know the minimum number of binding interactions that would still allow for super-selective binding to occur. They were also interested to know whether the pattern the ligand molecules are arranged in makes a difference in selectivity. As it turns out, it does.

They have recently published a study in the Journal of the American Chemical Society that identifies the optimal ligand number for super-selective binding: six. But they also found, to their excitement, that the arrangement of these ligands—in a line, circle, or triangle, for example—also significantly impacted binding efficacy. They have dubbed the phenomenon "multivalent pattern recognition" or MPR.

After engineering a series of ligand-receptor architectures to explore how density, geometry, and nano-spacing influenced binding super-selectivity, the team realized that rigidity was a key factor. The more flexible, the less precise.

Diagnostics and therapeutics such as chemotherapy could also benefit from super-selectivity, which could allow for more reliable binding with cancer cells, for which certain receptor molecules are known to have a higher density. In this case, healthy cells would remain undetected, drastically reducing side effects.

Finally, such selectivity engineering could offer key insights into complex interactions within the immune system.

Hale Bila et al, Multivalent Pattern Recognition through Control of Nano-Spacing in Low-Valency Super-Selective Materials, Journal of the American Chemical Society (2022). DOI: 10.1021/jacs.2c08529

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 23, 2022 at 8:41am

Things that make  people feel more awake and alert during mornings and afternoons

A team of researchers affiliated with multiple institutions has isolated factors that they think have an impact on how awake and/or alert people feel during the day.

Prior research has shown that more people than ever are complaining of feeling tired, sleepy and unalert during the daytime. Such complaints have been connected to increases in motor vehicle and work accidents and also sloppy job performance. In this new effort, the researchers noted that little research has been conducted looking into the factors that contribute to daytime alertness. To rectify that problem, they conducted a study of their own.

The researchers recruited 833 volunteers (many of whom were either identical or fraternal twins) to undergo testing for two weeks. Each adhered to a prescribed diet and wore a watch that recorded their sleep and physical activity and also their glucose levels. They also recorded the food they ate using a custom phone app, which they also used to record their level of alertness. After the two-week period, the researchers found some patterns. For example, those people who slept longer reported feeling more alert the next day—no surprise there.

But they also found that it was not duration that led to an increase in alertness, but the time that they woke up—waking up later than normal, they found, made the volunteers feel more alert, at least during the morning, even if they did not go to bed late. They also found that the volunteers were more alert on days when they were physically active the day before. And they found that eating a high-carb breakfast, such as muffins, resulted in higher morning alertness.

Drinking pure glucose had them feeling even more alert. A high-protein breakfast, on the other hand, had the volunteers dragging in the morning. The researchers also found four factors that most contributed to daily variances for the volunteers: age, sleep, mood and frequency of eating—eating less often seemed to reduce next-day fatigue.

Raphael Vallat et al, How people wake up is associated with previous night's sleep together with physical activity and food intake, Nature Communications (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-34503-2

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 22, 2022 at 11:10am

A combination of ultrasound and nanobubbles allows cancerous tumors...

A new technology developed at Tel Aviv University makes it possible to destroy cancerous tumors in a targeted manner, via a combination of ultrasound and the injection of nanobubbles into the bloodstream. According to the research team, unlike invasive treatment methods or the injection of microbubbles into the tumor itself, this latest technology enables the destruction of the tumor in a non-invasive manner.

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Researchers develop a new type of light-sensitive nanoparticle to h...

Oregon State University scientists have produced a proof of concept for a new and better way of caring for women facing the life-threatening situation of ectopic pregnancy, which occurs when a fertilized egg implants somewhere other than the lining of the uterus.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 22, 2022 at 11:08am

Discovery reveals 'brain-like computing' at molecular level is possible

A discovery has revealed for the first time that unconventional brain-like computing at the tiniest scale of atoms and molecules is possible.

Researchers which consisted an international team of scientists  created a new type of organic material that learns from its past behaviour. The discovery of the "dynamic molecular switch" that emulates synaptic behavior is revealed in a new study in the journal Nature Materials.

The team developed a two-nanometer thick layer of molecules, which is 50,000 times thinner than a strand of hair and remembers its history as electrons pass through it. Switching probability and the values of the on/off states continually change in the molecular material, which provides a disruptive new alternative to conventional silicon-based digital switches that can only ever be either on or off.

The newly discovered dynamic organic switch displays all the mathematical logic functions necessary for , successfully emulating Pavlovian "call and response" synaptic brain-like behavior.

The researchers demonstrated the new materials properties using extensive experimental characterization and electrical measurements supported by multi-scale modeling spanning from predictive modeling of the molecular structures at the quantum level to analytical mathematical modeling of the electrical data.

Enrique del Barco, Dynamic molecular switches with hysteretic negative differential conductance emulating synaptic behaviour, Nature Materials (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41563-022-01402-2

https://phys.org/news/2022-11-discovery-reveals-brain-like-molecula...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 22, 2022 at 10:41am

Lab mice fed processed food found to fare worse against flu than those eating grains

A team of researchers  has found that lab mice are more likely to survive a flu infection if they are fed grain-based foods rather than processed food. The paper is published in Cell Reports.

In recent years, medical researchers have reported evidence that diet plays a larger role in illness recovery than was thought. Some studies have shown, for example, that caloric density and the concentration of nutrients consumed while recovering from an infection can have a major impact on the severity of the infection. In this new effort, the researchers found evidence suggesting that other characteristics of food can also play a role in illness recovery, at least in mice.

In this new effort, the researchers were studying how mammals such as mice fight off influenza infections. As part of that effort, they inadvertently fed two groups of lab mice slightly different meals that were thought to be equivalent in nutritional value and hence unlikely to have an impact on disease recovery. More specifically, they fed one group of mice a diet consisting mostly of grains. The other mice were fed a highly processed diet.

Both groups were subsequently infected with the influenza virus and were kept on the same diets they had prior to being infected. The researchers note that prior studies had shown that mice fed either diet when not battling an infection displayed little difference in health or behavior. But when infected with influenza, the researchers found that all of those fed the highly processed diet died. They also found that those fed the highly processed diet failed to regain weight lost due to the illness. In sharp contrast, all of the mice on the grain-based diet began regaining weight within 10 days of initial infection, and all of them recovered.

The researchers note that the difference in survival was not due to differences in an immune response, but was instead due to recovery issues. They note that the mice on the highly processed food diet ate less than those given grains and wound up getting less nutrients. They also had cooler body cores. The researchers also found some evidence that suggested IFN-γ, a signaling protein, played a role in the outcomes for the mice.

Taylor A. Cootes et al, The quality of energy- and macronutrient-balanced diets regulates host susceptibility to influenza in mice, Cell Reports (2022). DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2022.111638

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 21, 2022 at 9:46am

Why Scientists Are Listening to Coral Reefs

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 21, 2022 at 9:13am

Some Sugar Free Gummy Bears Are In Reality Laxatives! 

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 19, 2022 at 11:13am

Making mosquitoes' love songs fall on deaf ears

A team of researchers  have developed a new method that may help control mosquito populations. The annoying buzzing sound that mosquitoes make when flying inspired this technique.

Mosquitoes are not just a nuisance to people sitting outside on warm summer evenings. They also spread deadly diseases that kill thousands of people every year, including dengue, malaria, and the Zika virus. Therefore, it is vital to reduce mosquito populations around the world. Unfortunately, commonly used insecticides have become less effective over time because mosquitoes have developed resistance. They also have a negative impact on the environment. Therefore, alternative methods are needed for mosquito control.

One promising method for controlling mosquitoes takes advantage of perhaps their most annoying feature—their high-pitched buzzing. Females create this sound as they fly around seeking sources of blood. Male mosquitoes listen specifically for this characteristic high-pitched noise. Shaped like antennas, male mosquito ears vibrate at the same frequency as the female mosquito's wings. When a female flies by, the male's ears detect this frequency and resonate, sending a signal to their brain that helps them identify a potential mate.

A team of researchers  tested whether they could control mosquito mating behavior by altering the frequency at which male mosquitoes listen. By making the male mosquitoes' ears go "out of tune," they sought to influence their mating behavior.

he team first identified the involvement of the major neurotransmitter serotonin in the auditory system of the insect. Serotonin plays an important role in nervous systems and brains of various animals', influencing a wide range of behaviors.

After demonstrating serotonin in the mosquito auditory system, the team's next step was to manipulate serotonin levels. To do this, they used a method called "laser doppler vibrometry." This involves using a laser as a highly sensitive measurement tool to detect changes in the nanoscale vibrations of mosquito ears after exposure to serotonin-related compounds.

The researchers discovered that after feeding mosquitoes a serotonin-inhibiting compound, the male ears' vibration frequency decreased. When they gave the mosquitoes glucose laced with a compound that inhibited serotonin, both the range of frequencies the mosquitoes responded to, and their response itself, were reduced.

The next step in the development of a potential auditory-based "birth control" will involve identifying the exact receptors responsible for tuning the ears of mosquitoes. This could enable researchers to administer targeted compounds to disrupt mating behavior. 

Yifeng Y. J. Xu, YuMin M. Loh, Tai-Ting Lee, Takuro S. Ohashi, Matthew P. Su, Azusa Kamikouchi. Serotonin modulation in the male Aedes aegypti ear influences hearingFrontiers in Physiology, 2022; 13 DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2022.931567

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 19, 2022 at 10:59am

Messel boa: Live birth in a 47-million-year-old snake

team of scientists, including Senckenberg’s Krister Smith, has discovered the world’s first fossil evidence of live birth in snakes. The fossil they examined came from the Hessian UNESCO World Heritage Site “Messel Pit.” In the study, published in the journal “The Science of Nature,” the researchers describe bones of snake embryos discovered in the mother’s body. The finding shows that viviparous snakes already existed at least 47 million years ago.

Most reptiles alive today lay eggs; this so-called oviparity is their most common mode of reproduction. But there are exceptions: Numerous species of lizards and snakes are known to deviate from the norm and give birth to their offspring alive – viviparously. Fossil preservation of reproductive events is generally very rare. In total, only two fossil records of viviparous land reptiles have been discovered to date. Scientists have now succeeded in describing the world’s first fossil evidence of a viviparous snake.

The fossil Messelophis variatus, from a family of boa-like snakes, is about 50 centimeters long, dates from the Eocene, and is related to modern-day dwarf boas from Central America. The species is among the most common snakes known from Messel. Nevertheless, this specimen,  is about 47 million years old.

It is a pregnant female with at least two embryos found in the posterior third of her trunk area. These bones were located quite a distance behind the stomach – if they were part of the snake’s prey, they would have already been digested this far back in the intestine and would no longer be recognizable. Thus, they must represent the boa’s embryos. The fact that the bones are from very young snakes, yet already further developed than in an unlaid egg, supports the assumption that scientists are dealing with a pregnant, viviparous female.

In live births, the young remain in the female’s body until they are viable – eliminating the need for a protective eggshell. This is considered an advantageous evolutionary strategy for reptiles in cold climates, as the temperature inside the female’s body is more stable and thus safer for their offspring. Therefore, many of today’s viviparous lizards and snakes have evolved in rather cooler climates. “During the Eocene, however, the Earth was dominated by a persistent greenhouse climate with warm temperatures, a high carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere, and ice-free poles. Around the Messel Lake, average temperatures at that time were about 20 degrees Celsius, and winter temperatures did not fall below freezing. Why the boas gave birth to live offspring 47 million years ago in spite of this fact is still unknown. Perhaps additional fossils from this unique site will help us solve this mystery!

Mariana Chuliver et al, Live birth in a 47-million-year-old snake, The Science of Nature (2022). DOI: 10.1007/s00114-022-01828-3

 

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