Science, Art, Litt, Science based Art & Science Communication


Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

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Latest Activity: 10 hours ago


     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

         The Reach of Scientific Research From Labs to Laymen

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

“Science is not a subject you studied in school. It’s life. We 're brought into existence by it!"

 Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28



Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53


part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...


BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  their children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

 A+. sci-com-what-makes-a-story-news-worthy-in-science

 B+. is-a-perfect-language-important-in-writing-science-stories

C+. sci-com-how-much-entertainment-is-too-much-while-communicating-sc

D+. sci-com-why-can-t-everybody-understand-science-in-the-same-way

E+. how-to-successfully-negotiate-the-science-communication-maze

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis


o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 


b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here:

( Please go through the comments section below to find scientific research  reports posted on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

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Discussion Forum

My answers to questions on science -2

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday. 1 Reply

Q: How can we boost our immune systems to the extent that we don't get any diseases?Krishna: You actually don't want your immune system to be stronger, you want it to be balanced.Yes, "immunity…Continue

Why do some people completely reject science and how can we deal with this problem?

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Dec 3. 1 Reply

Q: Why do some people completely reject science and how can we deal with this problem?Krishna: Yes, rejection of science is a problem, whether it is complete or partial.We have to deal with all sorts…Continue

Why do people deny evidence based facts?

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Nov 30. 1 Reply

Yesterday a strange thing happened. I was telling some people on a social media site that street food is not safe when somebody is having it.  Most of the people that were with me  were youngsters.…Continue

Denial is over: Climate change is happening, but why do we still act like it's not?

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Nov 22. 1 Reply

Climate-fueled disaster is now front-page news, as record-breaking floods, fires, droughts and storms keep arriving.The damage done by climate change is systemic and pervasive, resonating through our…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 20, 2023 at 10:26am

Early-life stress changes more genes in the brain than a head injury

A surprising thing happened when researchers began exploring whether early-life stress compounds the effects of a childhood head injury on health and behavior later in life. In an animal study, stress changed the activation level of many more genes in the brain than were changed by a bump to the head.

It's already known that head injuries are common in young kids, especially from falling, and can be linked to mood disorders and social difficulties that emerge later in life. Adverse childhood experiences are also very common, and can raise risk for disease, mental illness and substance misuse in adulthood.

Researchers found many, many, many more genes were differentially expressed as a result of their early life stress manipulation than their traumatic brain injury manipulation in animals.

Stress is really powerful, and we shouldn't understate the impact of early life stress on the developing brain, according to them. 

The research poster was presented Nov. 12, 2023 at Neuroscience 2023, the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 20, 2023 at 10:19am

(a) System dynamics associated with three major groups of Anthropocene traps, global traps, technology traps and structural traps (including temporal and connectivity traps). Two reinforcing feedback loops are indicated with R and interactions between dynamics across groups oftraps are indicated with colored superscript letters (color of causal node) and stippled lined arrows. Credit: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B

Part 3


Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 20, 2023 at 10:18am

The simplification of agricultural systems is an example of such a trap. Relying on a few highly productive crops such as wheat, rice, maize, and soya, has meant that calories produced have skyrocketed over the past century. But it also meant that the food system has become very vulnerable to environmental change, such as weather extremes, or new diseases.

Of the 14 evolutionary traps, 12 are in an advanced state, meaning that humankind is on the verge of getting stuck to a degree where it becomes very difficult to get out. What's more, societies are continuing to move in the wrong direction in 10 of these 14.

Alarmingly, these evolutionary traps tend to reinforce each other. If societies get stuck in one dead end, they are more likely to get stuck in others as well. The two dead ends which currently are less advanced are the autonomy of technology—AI and robotics—and a loss of social capital through digitalization.

The new assessment also looks into why societies struggle so hard to move out of these traps.

The evolutionary forces that created the Anthropocene do not work well at the global level. In today's global systems, social and environmental problems grow in places that seem distant to the societies that could prevent them. Also, addressing them often requires global collaboration on a scale that many evolutionary forces often do not align well with.

This does not mean that humanity is doomed to fail, argue the researchers. But we must start to transform our societies actively. So far, the Anthropocene has to a large extent been an unconscious byproduct of other evolutionary processes.

"It's time for humans to become aware of the new reality and to collectively move where we want to as a species. We have the capability to do that and are already seeing signs of such movements. Our creativity, and our power to innovate and collaborate equip us with the perfect tools to actively design our future. We can break out of dead ends and business-as-usual, but for that, we must nurture the capacity for collective human agency and design settings where it can flourish.

A very simple thing that everybody can do is to engage more in nature and society while also learning about both the positive and negative global consequences of our own local actions.

 Peter Søgaard Jørgensen et al, Evolution of the polycrisis: Anthropocene traps that challenge global sustainability, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (B ) (2023). DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2022.0261

Part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 20, 2023 at 10:15am

New research maps 14 potential evolutionary dead ends for humanity and ways to avoid them

For the first time, scientists have used the concept of evolutionary traps on human societies at large. They find that humankind risks getting stuck in 14 evolutionary dead ends, ranging from global climate tipping points to misaligned artificial intelligence, chemical pollution, and accelerating infectious diseases.

The evolution of humankind has been an extraordinary success story. But the Anthropocene—the proposed geological epoch shaped by us humans—is showing more and more cracks. Multiple global crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, food insecurity, financial crises, and conflicts have started to occur simultaneously in something which scientists refer to as a polycrisis.

Humans are incredibly creative as a species. We are able to innovate and adapt to many circumstances and can cooperate on surprisingly large scales. But these capabilities turn out to have unintentional consequences. Simply speaking, you could say that the human species has been too successful and, in some ways, too smart for its own future good.

The  new study published as part of a larger assessment in the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. The assessment gathers insights from a wide range of different scientific disciplines across the natural and social sciences and humanities, to understand how the Anthropocene evolved and how global sustainability can continue to evolve in the future.

The new study shows how humanity could get stuck in "evolutionary traps"—dead ends that occur from initially successful innovations. In a first scoping effort, they identify 14 of these, including the simplification of agriculture, economic growth that does not deliver benefits for humans or the environment, the instability of global cooperation, climate tipping points, and artificial intelligence.

Evolutionary traps are a well-known concept in the animal world. Just like many insects are attracted by light, an evolutionary reflex that can get them killed in the modern world, humankind is at risk of responding to new phenomena in harmful ways.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 19, 2023 at 11:45am

But on other planets, things are a little less spectacular, at least to human eyes. The nightglow on Venus is infrared. On Jupiter, the glow is more ultraviolet (and apparently variable).

On Mars, infrared and ultraviolet nightglow have been seen. Scientists have even seen dayglow caused by the atmospheric absorption and release of energy from solar radiation in the visible spectrum on Mars (although you wouldn't be able to see it yourself, as a Mars explorer; daylight is simply too bright).

But "No nightglow spectrum has been observed so far in the visible domain," the researchers write. "Scattered solar light hinders such measurements from Earth's ground and no space-borne instrument has observed the Mars visible nightglow."
Between altitudes of 40 and 60 kilometers (25 to 37 miles), visible nightglow was spotted at the south pole during its Martian winter.

This, the researchers say, is the result of oxygen atoms transported from the sunny Martian day combining into dioxygen (O2), emitting a glow in the process – one bright enough to be seen from the ground.

This O2 nightglow should be observable from a Martian orbiter as well as from the Martian surface with the naked eye under clear sky conditions," the researchers write.

Part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 19, 2023 at 11:43am

For The First Time, an Eerie Green Glow Has Been Detected in The Night Sky of Mars

For the first time, a soft green glow has been detected in the night sky of Mars that we'd be able to see with our human eyes.

As it orbits Mars, the European Space Agency's (ESA) ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission has spotted the Martian night sky glowing in light in the optical spectrum.

And the light is so bright in the polar regions that human explorers might even be able to use it to see, if the night is clear of clouds. These observations are unexpected and interesting for future trips to the Red Planet.

Actually, nightglow is a relatively common phenomenon in the atmospheres of the Solar System. A number of things can cause our atmosphere to emit its own light at night, but few things more than our own Sun. During the day, sunlight splits apart molecules in a process called photodissociation. However, on the night side of the atmosphere, away from the harsh radiation of the Sun, the loose atoms can recombine into molecules, releasing their excess energy as photons as they do so.

Here on Earth, the nightglow is visible from space as layers of green, golden, and even reddish light, depending on the molecules involved.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 18, 2023 at 10:51am

No evidence for widespread transmission of viruses by African bats, says study

The scientific community and the public alike have often been presented with portrayals of bats as carriers of numerous dangerous viruses that are passed onto humans. In a paper published in Biology Letters, an international team of biologists, virologists and conservationists challenge this narrative surrounding bats.

Contrary to widely held beliefs, this comprehensive review of published studies finds no evidence, outside of Marburg and Sosuga virus, that African bat species serve as reservoirs or bridging hosts for viruses that spillover to humans and cause significant disease.

The research team,  examined the available literature, specifically focusing on viruses detected in bats in Africa. They meticulously reviewed 162 papers published between 1978 and 2020 and, based on data from more than 80,000 individual bats from 167 bat species, did not find substantial evidence that any bat species, other than the Egyptian rousette, plays a central role in the transmission of viruses to humans in this region.

The researchers found no evidence to support the prevailing narrative that bats harbour viruses that are transmitted to humans. On the contrary, their findings reveal only two bat-virus systems in which transmission is clearly documented.

The findings highlight the need for a more nuanced and informed approach to public discourse surrounding the role of wildlife in disease emergence." The authors thus propose a scheme to aid standardized evaluation of virus hosts in the future and call for greater interdisciplinary collaborations in bat-virus studies.

The researchers also state that instead of broadly stating bats harbour the Marburg virus, it is more accurate to specify that the Egyptian rousette, a specific bat species, hosts the Marburg virus. This phrasing preserves accuracy and avoids incorrectly associating all bat species with the Marburg virus.

This  will contribute to a more accurate understanding of the complex dynamics between wildlife, particularly bats, and human health.

Their study also raises concerns about the impact of reiterated research communication linking bats and viruses, based on missing evidence, on the public perception of bats, as well as human-bat conflicts and bat conservation efforts. Fear and active prosecution of bats are increasing dramatically and it is likely that populations are declining.

 Careful and scientifically sound communication of results as well as balancing potential risks against benefits will be crucial to allow humans and bats to live side by side in our changing world. The implications of this research extend beyond Africa, encouraging a more thoughtful and evidence-based approach to the study of zoonotic diseases worldwide.

 Natalie Weber et al, Robust evidence for bats as reservoir hosts is lacking in most African virus studies: a review and call to optimize sampling and conserve bats, Biology Letters (2023). DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2023.0358

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 18, 2023 at 9:43am

Researchers found that nanoparticles of the plastic polystyrene—typically found in single use items such as disposable drinking cups and cutlery—attract the accumulation of the protein known as alpha-synuclein.

The study's most surprising findings are the tight bonds formed between the plastic and the protein within the area of the neuron where these accumulations are congregating, the lysosome.

Researchers said the plastic-protein accumulations happened across three different models performed in the study—in test tubes, cultured neurons, and mouse models of Parkinson's disease. The questions remain about how such interactions might be happening within humans and whether the type of  plastic might play a role.

While microplastic and nanoplastic contaminants are being closely evaluated for their potential impact in cancer and autoimmune diseases, the striking nature of the interactions the researchers could observe in their models suggest a need for evaluating increasing nanoplastic contaminants on Parkinson's disease and dementia risk and progression.

Zhiyong Liu et al, Anionic nanoplastic contaminants promote Parkinson's disease–associated α-synuclein aggregation, Science Advances (2023). DOI: 10.1126/

Part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 18, 2023 at 9:41am

Nanoplastics promote conditions for Parkinson's across various lab models, study shows

Nanoplastics interact with a particular protein that is naturally found in the brain, creating changes linked to Parkinson's disease and some types of dementia.

In a study appearing Nov. 17 in Science Advances,  researchers report that the findings create a foundation for a new area of investigation, fueled by the timely impact of environmental factors on human biology.

Parkinson's disease has been called the fastest growing neurological disorder in the world. Numerous lines of data suggest environmental factors might play a prominent role in Parkinson's disease, but such factors have for the most part not been identified till now.

Improperly disposed plastics have been shown to break into very small pieces and accumulate in water and food supplies, and were found in the blood of most adults in a recent study.

This new study suggests that the emergence of micro and nanoplastics in the environment might represent a new toxin challenge with respect to Parkinson's disease risk and progression. This is especially concerning given the predicted increase in concentrations of these contaminants in our water and food supplies.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 18, 2023 at 9:35am

To kill malaria-carrying mosquitoes efficiently, just add soap!

Could the solution to the decades-long battle against malaria be as simple as soap? In a new study published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, scientists  have made a compelling case for it.

A research team has found that adding small quantities of liquid soap to some classes of pesticides can boost their potency by more than 10-fold. The discovery is promising news as malaria-carrying mosquitoes display an increasing resistance to current insecticides.

Both laboratory tests and field trials have shown that neonicotinoids, a special class of insecticide, are a promising alternative to target populations showing resistance to existing insecticides. Neonicotinoids, however, do not kill some mosquito species unless their potency is boosted. In this case, the researchers say, soap is the boosting substance.

Colince Kamdem et al, Vegetable oil-based surfactants are adjuvants that enhance the efficacy of neonicotinoid insecticides and can bias susceptibility testing in adult mosquitoes, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases (2023).


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