Science, Art, Litt, Science based Art & Science Communication


Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 9 hours ago


     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

         The Reach of Scientific Research From Labs to Laymen

The aim of science is not only to open a door to infinite knowledge and                                     wisdom but to set a limit to infinite error.

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

“Science is not a subject you studied in school. It’s life. We 're brought into existence by it!"

 Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28



Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53


part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...


BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  their children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

 A+. sci-com-what-makes-a-story-news-worthy-in-science

 B+. is-a-perfect-language-important-in-writing-science-stories

C+. sci-com-how-much-entertainment-is-too-much-while-communicating-sc

D+. sci-com-why-can-t-everybody-understand-science-in-the-same-way

E+. how-to-successfully-negotiate-the-science-communication-maze

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis


o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 


b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here:

( Please go through the comments section below to find scientific research  reports posted on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

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Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

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Discussion Forum

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Health care providers and patients have traditionally thought that infections patients get while in the hospital are caused by superbugs…Continue


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A person asked me just now why we treat people who have strangebeliefs as inferior in mental health.And this 's my reply to him:Inferior in mental health? No, we don't think so.But let me explain a…Continue

Why precautions should be taken while using MRI machines

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Saturday. 1 Reply

Q: RI machines use powerful magnets to create detailed images of the body. But some people with certain medical implants cannot undergo MRI scans. Why is this, and what does it tell us about the…Continue

Science just recycles, it doesn't reincarnate!

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday. 1 Reply

Q: Since there is no afterlife, do I just end up dead and buried in the cemetery forever?Krishna: We all came from star dust and energy. And go to it again. In never ending cycles, each atom of our…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 4, 2024 at 9:45am

Studies have since shown that exposure to some PFAS—there are at least 4,000 chemical compounds in the family—may be linked to serious health effects in humans and animals.
The European Union is considering a blanket Europe-wide ban on PFAS from as early as 2026 while New Zealand will outlaw their use in cosmetic products by 2027.

In April, a US court approved a litigation settlement in which the conglomerate 3M agreed to pay billions to test for and filter out PFAS in public water supply.

In February, US regulators said materials containing PFAS would no longer be used to package microwave popcorn or other greasy foods.
Establishing the possible long-term harms of PFAS exposure is difficult when considering such a kaleidoscope of chemicals, many of which are industry secrets.
Those known to scientists are "only the tip of the iceberg".
Examining the full spectrum of chemicals is critical to better understanding their impact on nature.
A wild organism is never exposed to a single PFAS, but to a cocktail of PFAS.

Source: AFP and other news agencies

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 4, 2024 at 9:43am

From polar bears to groundwater, nature is riddled with 'forever chemicals'

They didn't exist a century ago but today PFAS "forever chemicals" contaminate the environment from groundwater to Antarctic snow to turtle eggs, and concern over their possible toxicity is growing.

Lawsuits and regulations targeting per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are multiplying, with France becoming the latest jurisdiction to consider tough new curbs on these long-life substances.

On Thursday, a French legislator will introduce a bill to address what he calls the health "emergency" posed by exposure to PFAS in the environment.

Widely used in everyday items, highly durable, and very slow to break down, PFAS have been detected in water, air, fish and soil in the remotest corners of the globe.

No ecosystem has escaped this contamination. 

These molecules—the best known of which gave birth to non-stick Teflon—were developed after World War II to give packaging, paints and coatings exceptional resistance to water or heat.

This very quality turned out to be a particular problem for oceans. Being persistent compounds—which do not degrade and are mobile—they end up in the marine environment, which always ultimately is the receptacle for contamination.

A study published in January by the American Chemical Society, a nonprofit scientific organisation, said that PFAS had ben detected in the Arctic Ocean at a depth of 3,000 feet (914 metres).

IFREMER recently examined the diets of two fish—sea bass and sole—in the Seine estuary of France and discovered PFAS riddled throughout the food chain.

From the tiny zooplankton eaten by shellfish, which are consumed by smaller fish and ultimately larger predators, PFAS lurked at every step along the way.

A 2022 study in Australia established the transmission of PFAS from female turtles to their unborn offspring, while other research found traces in polar bear livers and birds, seals and other animals.

A wealth of scientific research has demonstrated the pervasive reach of PFAS in nature, but possible harms to people and the planet have been harder to definitively establish.

More than 20 years ago, a study in the US concluded that once inside the body PFAS may be able to reach the brain of vertebrates and affect the nervous system.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 4, 2024 at 9:24am

NASA wants to come up with a new clock for the moon, where seconds tick away faster

NASA wants to come up with an out-of-this-world way to keep track of time, putting the moon on its own  clock.

It's not quite a time zone like those on Earth, but an entire frame of time reference for the moon. Because there's less gravity on the moon, time there moves a tad quicker—58.7 microseconds every day—compared to Earth. So the White House Tuesday instructed NASA and other U.S agencies to work with international agencies to come up with a new moon-centric time reference system.

An atomic clock on the moon will tick at a different rate than a clock on Earth. It makes sense that when you go to another body, like the moon or Mars that each one gets its own heartbeat.

So everything on the moon will operate on the speeded-up moon time.

The last time NASA sent astronauts to the moon they wore watches, but timing wasn't as precise and critical as it now with GPS, satellites and intricate computer and communications systems. Those microseconds matter when high tech systems interact.

Last year, the European Space Agency said Earth needs to come up with a unified time for the moon, where a day lasts 29.5 Earth days. The International Space Station, being in low Earth orbit, will continue to use coordinated universal time or UTC. But just where the new space time kicks in is something that NASA has to figure out. Even Earth's time speeds up and slows down, requiring leap seconds.

The White House wants NASA to come up with a preliminary idea by the end of the year and have a final plan by the end of 2026.

NASA is aiming to send astronauts around the moon in September 2025 and land people there a year later.

Source:  The Associated Press and other News agencies

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 4, 2024 at 9:17am

Researchers find a simple way to harvest more 'blue energy' from waves

Waves pack a powerful punch. Now, we are one step closer to capturing the energy behind the ocean's constant ebb and flow with an improved "blue energy" harvesting device.

Researchers report in ACS Energy Letters that simply repositioning the electrode—from the center of a see-sawing liquid-filled tube to the end where the water crashes with the most force—dramatically increased the amount of wave energy that could be harvested.

The tube-shaped wave-energy harvesting device improved upon by the researchers is called a liquid–solid triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). The TENG converts mechanical energy into electricity as water sloshes back and forth against the inside of the tube. One reason these devices aren't yet practical for large-scale applications is their low energy output.

aimed to increase a liquid–solid TENG's energy harvesting ability by optimizing the location of the energy-collecting electrode.

The researchers used 16-inch clear plastic tubes to create two TENGs. Inside the first device, they placed a copper foil electrode at the center of the tube—the usual location in conventional liquid–solid TENGs.

For the new design, they inserted a copper foil electrode at one end of the tube. The researchers then filled the tubes a quarter of the way with water and sealed the ends. A wire connected the electrodes to an external circuit.

Placing both devices on a benchtop, the rocker moved water back and forth within the tubes and generated electrical currents by converting mechanical energy—the friction from water hitting or sliding against the electrodes—into electricity. Compared to the conventional design, the researchers found that the optimized design increased the device's conversion of mechanical energy to electrical current by 2.4 times.

In another experiment, the optimized TENG blinked an array of 35 LEDs on and off as water entered the section of the tube covered by the electrode and then flowed away, respectively.

The researchers say these demonstrations lay the foundation for larger scale blue-energy harvesting from ocean waves and show their device's potential for other applications like wireless underwater signaling communications.

Space Volume Effect in Tube Liquid–Solid Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Output Performance Enhancement, ACS Energy Letters (2024). DOI: 10.1021/

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 4, 2024 at 8:52am

Our own galaxy, the Milky Way, still has a thin star forming disk, so is still considered a high spin rotational galaxy.

"But when we look at the Milky Way in detail, we do see something called the Milky Way thick disk. It's not dominant, in terms of light, but it is there and those look to be older stars, which may well have been heated from the thin disk at earlier times, or born with more turbulent motion in the early universe.

Scott Croom et al, The SAMI Galaxy Survey: galaxy spin is more strongly correlated with stellar population age than mass or environment, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2024). DOI: 10.1093/mnras/ … 0.1093/mnras/stae458

Part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 4, 2024 at 8:51am

Study reports that age is the driving force in changing how stars move within galaxies

Galaxies start life with their stars rotating in an orderly pattern but in some the motion of stars is more random. Until now, scientists have been uncertain about what causes this—possibly the surrounding environment or the mass of the galaxy itself.

A new study, published in MNRAS (Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society), has found that the most important factor is neither of these things. It shows the tendency of the stars to have random motion is driven mostly by the age of the galaxy—things just get messy over time.

When researchers did the analysis, they found that age, consistently, whichever way we slice or dice it, is always the most important parameter.

Once you account for age, there is essentially no environmental trend, and it's similar for mass.

"If you find a young galaxy it will be rotating, whatever environment it is in, and if you find an old galaxy, it will have more random orbits, whether it's in a dense environment or a void.

Young galaxies are star-forming super-factories, while in older ones, star formation ceases.

We do know that age is affected by environment. If a galaxy falls into a dense environment, it will tend to shut down the star formation. So galaxies in denser environments are, on average, older.

The point of their analysis is that it's not living in dense environments that reduces their spin, it's the fact that they're older.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 3, 2024 at 11:30am

Current estimates suggest that fewer than 100 cases have been reported globally. This underscores its status as one of the rarest form of hives.

Managing this allergy presents a formidable challenge for patients and healthcare providers alike.

Conventional allergy treatments (antihistamines, corticosteroids) offer temporary relief but may not address the underlying cause.

Experimental therapies such as phototherapy (exposing the skin to ultraviolet light) aim to calm the immune response and reduce inflammation. This therapy has shown some promise in alleviating symptoms.

Biologic agents, so-called "large-molecule drugs" made from proteins, target specific immune pathways implicated in allergic reactions. They offer a more targeted therapeutic approach that holds potential for long-term symptom management.

Avoiding water is tricky and involves careful planning, including alternative ways to stay clean.
Using protective barriers, such as emollient creams, can help create a layer between the skin and water, which may help reduce symptom severity and frequency.
investigation into immune system mechanisms underlying aquagenic urticaria is essential to finding new treatments.

Continued clinical trials and studies are crucial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of emerging therapies, such as phototherapy and biologic agents, in managing aquagenic urticaria. Unfortunately, these studies are limited by patient numbers.

Part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 3, 2024 at 11:28am

Aquagenic Urticaria - commonly known as "water allergy".

Aquagenic urticaria, which has only ever been reported approximately 100 times, causes hives to form when a person's skin comes into contact with water, such as in the shower and pool - and sometimes even from a person's own sweat. 

The first documented mention of water allergy dates to the late 20th century, with case reports detailing the perplexing experiences of people afflicted by water-induced hives.

Since then, sporadic cases have dotted medical literature, contributing to our evolving understanding of this ailment. Recent trends suggest a gradual increase in cases, driven by heightened awareness among healthcare professionals and improved diagnostic capabilities.

This rare affliction transforms the seemingly innocuous act of water contact into a tormenting ordeal, afflicting people such as 22-year-old Loren Montefusco from South Carolina, US.

At its core, water allergy is believed to arise from an abnormal immune response triggered by water's interaction with the skin. Think of your immune system as a vigilant guardian, always on alert for invaders. In aquagenic urticaria, water somehow triggers an alarm response. This leads to the release of substances like histamine – causing hives, welts and itching.

Researchers have pinpointed mutations in specific genes associated with water allergy, such as the FABP5 gene, crucial for skin barrier function. Mutations in this gene disrupt the skin's ability to repel water, activating an inflammatory response.

Variations in genes involved in immune regulation and skin integrity also contribute to susceptibility. However, environmental factors such as hormonal changes or chemical exposure can influence its severity.
Understanding the genetic basis offers insights into how the disease occurs and potential therapies. By identifying specific genetic markers, personalised treatment approaches targeting underlying mechanisms can be developed.
Part 1
Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 3, 2024 at 9:57am

Hair from tiger thought to be extinct found by conservationist on Java

This is good news for Tiger lovers


A team of environmentalists and zoologists affiliated with several institutions in Indonesia has confirmed that a tiger species once thought extinct is still living on the island of Java. In their study, published in the journal Oryx, the group conducted a DNA analysis of a hair found by a conservationist on a plantation on the island. Prior research has shown that the Java tiger once flourished on the island. The tiger is a subspecies of the more well-known Sumatran tiger. But as humans encroached on their territory, leaving little land for the tigers, their numbers began dwindling. After farmers began shooting them for killing livestock, they disappeared completely. In 2008, the species was declared extinct. In this new effort, the research team has found evidence that the declaration may have been premature. Over the past several decades, there have been reports by nonscientists of tigers still living on the island; some even suggested that livestock had been killed by one or more of them. But the sightings were unconfirmed. Then, five years ago, a conservationist working on the island saw what he believed to be a Java tiger on a western part of the island near a plantation. He reported this to a researcher on the island who visited the site and found footprints and claw marks on shrubbery and also a single hair stuck to a fence. A later in-depth interview with the conservationist led the researchers to believe the hair was indeed from a Java tiger. They tested it genetically and compared the results with samples from a museum specimen of a Javan tiger collected in 1930, which showed them to be closely matched. Based on the genetic evidence, the researchers concluded that the hair had come from a Java tiger. The finding shows that the tiger did not go extinct when thought and members of its species had been living on the island, but whether Javan tigers are still there needs to be confirmed with further genetic and field studies.

Wirdateti Wirdateti et al, Is the Javan tiger Panthera tigris sondaica extant? DNA analysis of a recent hair sample, Oryx (2024). DOI: 10.1017/S0030605323001400

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 3, 2024 at 9:52am

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