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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 3 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

         The Reach of Scientific Research From Labs to Laymen

The aim of science is not only to open a door to infinite knowledge and                                     wisdom but to set a limit to infinite error.

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

“Science is not a subject you studied in school. It’s life. We 're brought into existence by it!"

 Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......306

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  their children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

 A+. sci-com-what-makes-a-story-news-worthy-in-science

 B+. is-a-perfect-language-important-in-writing-science-stories

C+. sci-com-how-much-entertainment-is-too-much-while-communicating-sc

D+. sci-com-why-can-t-everybody-understand-science-in-the-same-way

E+. how-to-successfully-negotiate-the-science-communication-maze

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find scientific research  reports posted on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

The Strange Conditions Where Body Organs End Up in The Wrong Place

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 3 hours ago. 1 Reply

Organs in the body tend to be in a set order and position. This is useful when it comes to diagnosing certain conditions.Anyone with …Continue

Facts and opinions in science

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday. 1 Reply

Q: Can you explain the distinctions between a fact and an opinion in the fields of philosophy, religion, science, etc.?Krishna:Right, yes.There is this universe. Our universe. It came into existence…Continue

Science is the only way to understand this Scientific Universe

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Sunday. 1 Reply

Q: Is it possible for scientists to explain everything they observe using science? Will there ever be a complete scientific explanation for everything?Krishna: Let me divide your question into two…Continue

Some Qs. people asked me on science and my replies to them - Part 28

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Saturday. 6 Replies

                                                               Interactive science seriesScience and religion:Q: Which of these two  came first: science or religion?  Krishna: If I say in the order…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 11, 2024 at 11:47am

Compressed titanium and sulfur nanoribbons can transmit electricity without energy loss, scientists find

When compressed, nanoribbons of titanium and sulfur can change properties dramatically, turning into materials with the ability to conduct electricity without losing energy, according to a study published in the journal Nano Letters.

The authors have made the discovery during their painstaking search for new materials that can transmit electricity without loss of energy, a hot topic that has for long haunted the scientific community.

This new research focused on one such promising material: TiS3 nanoribbons, which are tiny, ribbon-like structures made of titanium and sulfur. In their natural state, TiS3 nanoribbons act as insulators, meaning they do not conduct electricity well.  The researchers, however, discovered that by applying pressure to these nanoribbons, we could change their electrical properties dramatically.

The scientists exposed TiS3 to gradual pressure. As they increased the pressure, they found that the TiS3 system underwent a series of transitions, from being insulators to becoming metals and superconductors, for the first time.

TiS3 materials are known to work as good insulators, but it is the first time scientists have discovered that under pressure they can function as superconductors, paving the way for the development of superconducting materials.

Mahmoud Abdel-Hafiez et al, From Insulator to Superconductor: A Series of Pressure-Driven Transitions in Quasi-One-Dimensional TiS3 Nanoribbons, Nano Letters (2024). DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.4c00824

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 11, 2024 at 11:15am

Improved prime editing system makes gene-sized edits in human cells at therapeutic levels

Scientists have improved a gene-editing technology that is now capable of inserting or substituting entire genes in the genome in human cells efficiently enough to be potentially useful for therapeutic applications.

The advance could one day help researchers develop a single gene therapy for diseases such as cystic fibrosis that are caused by one of hundreds or thousands of different mutations in a gene. Using this new approach, they would insert a healthy copy of the gene at its native location in the genome, rather than having to create a different gene therapy to correct each mutation using other gene-editing approaches that make smaller edits.

The new method uses a combination of prime editing, which can directly make a wide range of edits up to about 100 or 200 base pairs, and newly developed recombinase enzymes that efficiently insert large pieces of DNA thousands of base pairs in length at specific sites in the genome. This system, called eePASSIGE, can make gene-sized edits several times more efficiently than other similar methods, and is reported in Nature Biomedical Engineering.

Pandey S, Gao XD, et al. Efficient site-specific integration of large genes in mammalian cells via continuously evolved recombinases and prime editing, Nature Biomedical Engineering (2024). DOI: 10.1038/s41551-024-01227-1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 11, 2024 at 10:24am

This work shows that about 10% of all the crystals the researchers analyzed were older than 4 billion years. That might seem small, but it's an enormous amount of super-old grains compared to other places around the world.

To figure out whether these grains held a record of fresh water, they used tiny beams of ions on these dated zircon grains to measure the ratio of heavier to lighter oxygen. This ratio, known as an oxygen isotopic ratio, is thought to be nearly constant through time for seawater, but much lighter for fresh water.

Conspicuously, a small portion of zircon crystals from 4 billion years ago had a very light signature that could only have formed from the interaction of fresh water and rocks.
Zircon is extremely resistant to alteration. For the Jack Hills' zircon to obtain this light oxygen signature, the rock altered by fresh water had to melt and then re-solidify to impart the light oxygen isotopic signature into the zircon.

Thus, fresh water had to be present on Earth before 4 billion years ago.
Researchers now at least found evidence for the cradle of life on Earth some time before 4 billion years ago—extremely early in our planet's 4.5-billion-year history..

Hamed Gamaleldien et al, Onset of the Earth's hydrological cycle four billion years ago or earlier, Nature Geoscience (2024). DOI: 10.1038/s41561-024-01450-0

Part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 11, 2024 at 10:22am

Study finds fresh water and key conditions for life appeared on Earth a half-billion years earlier than thought

We need two ingredients for life to start on a planet: dry land and (fresh) water. Strictly, the water doesn't have to be fresh, but fresh water can only occur on dry land.

Only with those two conditions met can you convert the building blocks of life, amino acids and nucleic acids into tangible bacterial life that heralds the start of the evolutionary cycle.

The oldest life on Earth left in our fragmented rock record is 3.5 billion years old, with some chemical data showing it may even be as old as 3.8 billion years. Scientists have hypothesized life might be even older, but we have no records of that being the case.

A new study published in Nature Geoscience provides the first evidence of fresh water and dry land on Earth by 4 billion years ago. Knowing when the cradle of life—water and land—first appeared on Earth ultimately provides clues as to how we came to be.

Fresh water is very different from sea water. Obviously, you might say, but how do you know if one or both were present on Earth if you can't actually go back in a time machine?

The answer is in the rock record and chemical signals preserved in that time capsule. Earth is a bit over 4.5 billion years old, and the oldest rocks scientists have found are just a little older than 4 billion years.

To really understand our planet in its first 500 million years, we have to turn to crystals that once came from older rocks and ended up deposited in younger rocks.

Unlike rocks, the oldest preserved crystals go back as far as 4.4 billion years. And the bulk of these super-old crystals comes from one place on Earth: the Jack Hills in Western Australia's midwest.

This is precisely where the researchers of this study went. They dated over a thousand crystals of a mineral called zircon, famed for its extreme resistance to weathering and alteration.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 10, 2024 at 7:47am

Does magic really exist?

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 10, 2024 at 7:17am

When Water Flows Uphill

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 8, 2024 at 11:07am

Researchers discover Earth and space share the same turbulence

In a paper published in Geophysical Research Letters, researchers have discovered that the turbulence in the thermosphere exhibits the same physical laws as the wind in the lower atmosphere. Furthermore, wind in the thermosphere predominantly rotates in a cyclonic direction, in that it rotates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.

The findings reveal a new unified principle for the Earth's varied environmental systems and can potentially improve future forecasting of both earth and space weather.

Facundo L. Poblet et al, Third‐Order Structure Functions of Zonal Winds in the Thermosphere Using CHAMP and GOCE Observations, Geophysical Research Letters (2024). DOI: 10.1029/2024GL108367

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 8, 2024 at 11:02am

The shells in this paper consist of a thin inner layer of positive mass and a thin outer layer of negative mass; the total mass of both layers—which is all one could measure, mass-wise—is exactly zero, but when a star lies on this shell it experiences a large gravitational force pulling it towards the center of the shell.
As gravitational force fundamentally involves the warping of space-time itself, it enables all objects to interact with each other, whether they have mass or not. Massless photons, for example, have been confirmed to experience gravitational effects from astronomical objects.
Gravitational bending of light by a set of concentric singular shells comprising a galaxy or cluster is due to a ray of light being deflected slightly inwards—that is, towards the center of the large-scale structure, or the set of shells—as it passes through one shell.
The sum total effect of passage through many shells is a finite and measurable total deflection which mimics the presence of a large amount of dark matter in much the same way as the velocity of stellar orbits.

Both the deflection of light and stellar orbital velocities is the only means by which one gauges the strength of the gravitational field in a large-scale structure, be it a galaxy or a cluster of galaxies. The contention of this paper is that at least the shells it posits are massless. There is then no need to perpetuate this seemingly endless search for dark matter.

Richard Lieu, The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2024). DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stae1258

Part 2

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 8, 2024 at 11:00am

Researcher suggests that gravity can exist without mass, mitigating the need for hypothetical dark matter

Dark matter is a hypothetical form of matter that is implied by gravitational effects that can't be explained by general relativity unless more matter is present in the universe than can be seen. It remains virtually as mysterious as it was nearly a century ago when first suggested by Dutch astronomer Jan Oort in 1932 to explain the so-called "missing mass" necessary for things like galaxies to clump together.

Now Dr. Richard Lieu at The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) has published a paper in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society that shows, for the first time, how gravity can exist without mass, providing an alternative theory that could potentially mitigate the need for dark matter.  

The researcher contends the "excess" gravity necessary to bind a galaxy or cluster together could be due instead to concentric sets of shell-like topological defects in structures commonly found throughout the cosmos that were most likely created during the early universe when a phase transition occurred. A cosmological phase transition is a physical process where the overall state of matter changes together across the entire universe.

It is unclear presently what precise form of phase transition in the universe could give rise to topological defects of this sort.

Topological effects are very compact regions of space with a very high density of matter, usually in the form of linear structures known as cosmic strings, although 2D structures such as spherical shells are also possible.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 8, 2024 at 9:21am

Highlights of the study:

  • •An early study to detect microplastics in semen from a general population cohort
  • •Eight MP polymer types were identified, with PS, PE, and PVC most prevalent.
  • •Raman microspectroscopy enabled sub-micron microplastic characterization.
  • •PS and PVC correlated with differential effects on sperm motility.
  • As widespread environmental pollution, MPs/NPs raise concerns about reproductive toxicity.

  • Infertility affects 15 % couples globally, with environmental factors playing a significant role.

  • Limited understanding of MPs/NPs effects on testes and ovaries necessitates further research.

  • Contaminants carried by particles may synergistically contribute to reproductive toxicity.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969723048830

Part 2

 

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