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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 12 minutes ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

         The Reach of Scientific Research From Labs to Laymen

The aim of science is not only to open a door to infinite knowledge and                                     wisdom but to set a limit to infinite error.

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

“Science is not a subject you studied in school. It’s life. We 're brought into existence by it!"

 Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......306

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  their children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

 A+. sci-com-what-makes-a-story-news-worthy-in-science

 B+. is-a-perfect-language-important-in-writing-science-stories

C+. sci-com-how-much-entertainment-is-too-much-while-communicating-sc

D+. sci-com-why-can-t-everybody-understand-science-in-the-same-way

E+. how-to-successfully-negotiate-the-science-communication-maze

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find scientific research  reports posted on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

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Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 12 minutes ago. 1 Reply

Boquila trifoliolataBoquila trifoliolata is a woody vine with a highly…Continue

Study shows autoantibodies behind lifelong risk of viral infection

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday. 1 Reply

A new study, published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, shows that…Continue

Information on sugar specialists

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday. 1 Reply

Q: What qualifications and experience should I look for when choosing the best sugar specialist doctor in Delhi?Krishna: Delhi or anywhere else, you should look for a genuine specialist.Because a…Continue

How climate change is altering the Earth's rotation

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Tuesday. 1 Reply

For the first time, researchers have been able to fully explain the various causes of long-term polar motion in the most comprehensive modeling to date, using AI methods. Their model and their…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

Scientists develop fridge-free storage approach for vital medicines

Scientists have developed a new approach to store and distribute crucial protein therapeutics without the need for fridges or freezers.

The breakthrough, published in the journal Nature, could significantly improve accessibility of essential protein-based drugs in developing countries where cold storage infrastructure may be lacking, helping efforts to diagnose and treat more people with serious health conditions.

The researchers have designed a hydrogel—a material mostly made of water—that stabilizes proteins, protecting its properties and functionality at temperatures as high as 50°C.

The technology keeps proteins so stable that they can even be sent through the post with no loss of effectiveness, opening up new possibilities for more affordable, less energy-intensive methods of keeping patients and clinics supplied with vital treatments.
Protein therapeutics are used to treat a range of conditions, from cancer to diabetes and most recently to treat obesity and play a vital role in modern medicine and biotechnology. However, keeping them stable and safe for storage and transportation is a challenge. They must be kept cold to prevent any deterioration, using significant amounts of energy and limiting equitable distribution in developing countries.

The medicines also often include additives—called excipients—which must be safe for the drug and its recipients limiting material options.

This new technology developed marks a significant advance in overcoming the challenges of the existing 'cold chain' which delivers therapeutic proteins to patients. The results of the tests have very encouraging results, going far beyond current hydrogel storage techniques' abilities to withstand heat and vibration. That could help create much more robust delivery systems in the future, which require much less careful handling and temperature management.

 The researchers showed in their research paper how the hydrogel works to store two valuable proteins: insulin, used to treat diabetes, and beta-galactosidase, an enzyme with numerous applications in biotechnology and life sciences.

Dave Adams, Mechanical release of homogenous proteins from supramolecular gels, Nature (2024). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-024-07580-0www.nature.com/articles/s41586-024-07580-0

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

Trusted TV doctors 'deepfaked' to promote health scams on social media

Some of the UK's most recognizable TV doctors are increasingly being "deepfaked" in videos to sell scam products across social media, finds The BMJ recently. 

Trusted names including Hilary Jones, Michael Mosley and Rangan Chatterjee are being used to promote products claiming to fix high BP and diabetes, and to sell hemp gummies.

Deepfaking is the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to map a digital likeness of a real-life human being onto a video of a body that isn't theirs. Reliable evidence on how convincing it is can be hard to come by, but one recent study suggests that up to half of all people shown deepfakes talking about scientific subjects cannot distinguish them from authentic videos.

The fraudsters think it's much cheaper to spend their cash on making videos than it is on doing research and coming up with new products and getting them to market in the conventional way.

The slew of questionable content on social media co-opting the likenesses of popular doctors and celebrities is an inevitable consequence of the AI revolution we're currently living through. The rapid democratization of accessible AI tools for voice cloning and avatar generation has transformed the fraud and impersonation landscape.

Feature: Deepfakes and doctors: How people are being fooled by social media scams, The BMJ (2024). DOI: 10.1136/bmj.q1319

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

New invention makes vibrations disappear

When everything shakes, precision is usually impossible—everybody who has ever tried to take a photo with shaky hands or make handwritten notes on a bumpy bus journey knows that. With technical precision measurements, even much smaller vibrations are a major problem, for example, with high-performance microscopes or precisely aligned telescope mirrors. Even the smallest vibrations, which are not even perceptible to humans, can render the measurement result unusable.

A new type of vibration damping technology has now been invented by researchers that solves such problems in an unusual way: electropermanent magnets are used. These are magnets that, like ordinary permanent magnets, maintain their magnetism permanently without the need for a power supply, but which are also fitted with a coil so that their magnetization can be changed extremely fast using an electrical pulse. This makes it possible, for example, to actively suppress vibrations in mirrors in large telescopes and thus dramatically increase their performance.

Alexander Pechhacker et al, Integrated Electromagnetic Actuator With Adaptable Zero Power Gravity Compensation, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics (2023). DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2023.3288176

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

Lifelong consequences of autoantibodies: Importantly, the study found that once developed, these autoantibodies remained detectable in the blood of individuals for the rest of their lives. People with autoantibodies against type 1 interferons, even when they had developed them as far back as in 2008, were more likely to suffer from severe COVID-19 in 2020.

These autoantibodies have consequences for individuals decades later, leading to a compromised type 1 interferon system and reduced immunity against viruses.

Understanding these risk factors might lead to future diagnostic tests that can identify older individuals who are more prone to developing this deficiency, and therefore help with measures to prevent autoantibodies ever developing. Identifying individuals with autoantibodies against type 1 interferons could also help to prioritize these people for vaccines or antivirals to prevent severe viral infections.

Sonja Fernbach et al, Loss of Tolerance Precedes Triggering and Lifelong Persistence of Pathogenic Type I Interferon Autoantibodies, Journal of Experimental Medicine (2024). DOI: 10.1084/jem.20240365

Part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

Study shows autoantibodies behind lifelong risk of viral infection

A new study, published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, shows that about 2% of the population develop autoantibodies against type 1 interferons, mostly later in life. This makes individuals more susceptible to viral diseases like COVID-19. The study  is based on an analysis of a large collection of historical blood samples.

Virus infections trigger the cells of the immune system to release type 1 interferons. These proteins act as early messengers that warn uninfected cells and tissues that a virus is spreading. This allows cells to prepare themselves so that they are ready to fight the virus when it reaches them.

In individuals with a compromised type 1 interferon system, severe viral infections can occur because the body cannot mount a full defense. Recent research has shown that about 5 to 15% of people who are in hospital with severe COVID-19 or influenza have a deficiency in their type 1 interferon response. This is because their blood contains autoantibodies—antibodies that target a person's own structures—that bind type 1 interferons and stop the messenger from functioning.

analyzed the blood samples for the presence of autoantibodies against type 1 interferons to find out who had developed the autoantibodies, when this occurred, and how long these autoantibodies lasted in the blood.

The analysis revealed that around 2% of individuals produced autoantibodies against type 1 interferons in their lifetime and that this typically occurred between the ages of 60 to 65. This confirms prior studies that reported that the prevalence of autoantibodies against type 1 interferons might increase with age.

Next, by studying clinical data, researchers were also able to understand which factors contributed to the development of autoantibodies against type 1 interferons. The individuals who developed them appeared to be prone to also producing antibodies against other proteins formed by their own bodies. This so-called loss of self-tolerance can occur in some people as they age.

These individuals may produce antibodies against their own type 1 interferons because they are both prone to making autoantibodies and are exposed to high levels of type 1 interferons, for example, because their immune system produces interferons against other infections at the time. 

Part1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

Intensive farming could raise risk of new pandemics, researchers warn

Industrialized farming is often thought to reduce the risk of zoonotic diseases (those transmitted from animals to humans) because of better control, biosecurity and separation of livestock.

A new study examines the effect of social and economic factors—which are often overlooked in traditional assessments. 

It finds that the effects of intensifying agriculture are at best uncertain and at worst may contribute to EID (emerging infectious disease) risk.

The risks of emergence and transmission depend on multiple factors, including contact between humans and animals, and how we use land.

Livestock farming plays a potentially significant role in those risks, shaping landscapes and providing hosts that can act as the source or amplifiers of emerging pathogens.

While such risks are usually assessed in terms of microbiological, ecological and veterinary sciences, the new study highlights the need to consider social, economic and political factors.

Disease is always more than a matter of pathogen transmission, contact and contagion.

The founding myth in intensive farming is that we separate livestock from wildlife and thereby shut off the risk of diseases passing between them.

"But these farms exist in the real world—so buildings and fences can get damaged, wildlife like rats or wild birds can get in, and workers move around. In short, there will always be accidents.

"Once social, economic and political factors are taken into account, the pandemic risk posed by intensive farming is concerning."

The paper highlights the expansion of intensive farming and the resulting environmental degradation as factors which can raise EID risks.

It also says intensification leads to a "mixed landscape"—with a variety of farming practices and types—which creates the "worst of all possible worlds in terms of EID risk."

On biosecurity, the paper says some farm businesses find the costs "debilitating," while regional variations also have an impact.

The researches say,' we need to reconsider the socio-cultural impacts of intensifying farm animal production on planetary health, environmental sustainability and animal welfare issues.'

Understanding the roles of economy and society in the relative risks of zoonosis emergence from livestock, Royal Society Open Science (2024). DOI: 10.1098/rsos.231709royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsos.231709

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

Smart soil can water and feed itself

A newly engineered type of soil can capture water out of thin air to keep plants hydrated and manage controlled release of fertilizer for a constant supply of nutrients.

Underpinning this exciting smart soil system is a hydrogel material developed by researchers. In experiments, the hydrogel-infused soil led to the growth of larger, healthier plants, compared to regular soil, all while using less water and fertilizer.

This new gel technology can reduce the burden on farmers by decreasing the need for frequent irrigation and fertilization. 

The technology is also versatile enough to be adopted across a wide range of climates, from arid regions to temperate areas.

The research was published recently in ACS Materials Letters

In experiments, plants rooted in the hydrogel soil saw a 138% increase in stem length compared to a control group in regular soil. And the modified soil can achieve approximately 40% water savings, significantly reducing the need for frequent irrigation and ensuring robust crop development. This research builds on previous discoveries involving hydrogels that can pull water from the atmosphere and make farming more efficient.

Jungjoon Park et al, Self-Irrigation and Slow-Release Fertilizer Hydrogels for Sustainable Agriculture, ACS Materials Letters (2024). DOI: 10.1021/acsmaterialslett.4c01120

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

Low-cost cellphone-based Raman spectrometer system can identify unknown biological molecules within minutes

Imagine knowing what berry or mushroom is safe to eat during a hike or swiftly detecting pathogens in a hospital setting that would traditionally require days to identify.

Identification and detection of drugs, chemicals and biological molecules invisible to the human eye can be made possible through the combined technology of a cellphone camera and a Raman spectrometer—a powerful laser chemical analysis method.

This new invention allows the user to make non-invasive identifications of potentially harmful chemicals or materials in the field, especially in remote areas where laboratory spectrometers cannot be used due to their size and power needs.

This new Raman spectrometer system integrates lenses, a diode laser and a diffraction grating—a small thin square-shaped surface that scatters light for analysis—in combination with a camera from a cellphone to record the Raman spectrum. Peaks in the spectrum provide detailed data about the chemical composition and molecular structure of a substance, depending on their intensities and positions.

To use the device, a cellphone is placed behind the transmission grating with the camera facing the grating, ready to record the Raman spectrum. A laser shoots a beam into a sample of unknown material, such as a bacterium, on a slide. The camera records the spectrum, and when paired with an appropriate cellphone application/database, this handheld instrument can enable rapid materials identification on site.

https://today.tamu.edu/2024/07/16/pocket-sized-invention-revolution...)%20for%20further%20analysis.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

Producing heat energy from captured carbon

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday

Researchers found that where apparel was sold is not necessarily where plastic waste leaks into the environment. For apparel originally sold in high-income countries like the United States, Japan and many others, most of the resulting pollution happened in lower-income countries where these pieces of clothing might be sold in the secondary market.

This finding points to a major concern with how people in higher-income countries consume apparel.

Anna Kounina et al, The global apparel industry is a significant yet overlooked source of plastic leakage, Nature Communications (2024). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-024-49441-4

Part 2

 

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