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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 21
Latest Activity: 9 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 573 articles posted here. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs peopel asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......185

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  thier children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

Important research news in medical sciences

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 13 hours ago. 0 Replies

Ph.D. Founder, Science Communication Network at Sci-Art Lab (2008–present)…Continue

Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them - part 211

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Monday. 1 Reply

Q: Are scientists and geologists obliged to accept the climate change theories? Who are some famous scientific people who don't believe in climate change?…Continue

Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them - part 210

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Saturday. 1 Reply

Q: In recent times people are trying to malign scientists and your efforts to educate people about pseudo-science by saying 'scientists put a few things they don't understand under the heading…Continue

Reason for dissociative experiences

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Sep 17. 1 Reply

Research team pinpoints brain circuitry underlying dissociative experiences People sometimes lose themselves in a great book or a daydream. But it's disconcerting when feeling transported becomes so…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 9 hours ago

How The Brain Prepares For The Eyes To See Computer simulations show that spontaneous activity in the developing retina could help the visual cortex form properly prior to input from the eyes. Read more from Asian Scientist Magazine at: https://www.asianscientist.com/2020/09/in-the-lab/visual-cortex-spo...

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3-D Printing inside the Body Could Patch Stomach Ulcers

In vivo bioprinting might also help repair hernias and treat infertility

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The Quantum Butterfly Noneffect

A familiar concept from chaos theory turns out to work differently in the quantum world

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 10 hours ago

SCI-COM: Scientists don’t share their findings for fun – they want their research to make a difference

Scientists don’t take time away from their research to share their expertise with journalists, policymakers and everyone else just to let us know about neat scientific facts. They share findings from their research because they want leaders and the public to use their hard-won insights to make evidence-based decisions about policy and personal issues. That’s according to two surveys of  researchers  conducted.

Scientists  reported “ensuring that policymakers use scientific evidence” is at the top of their list of communication goals. Helping their fellow citizens make better personal decisions also scores high. Further, scientists say they’re not communicating just to burnish their own reputation.

We know from other interviews and surveys that many scientists will often initially indicate that their communication “goal” is simply to increase knowledge or correct misinformation. However, if prodded by questions like “But why do you want to increase knowledge?” or “What do you hope will happen if you correct misinformation?” they will often identify their ultimate aim as helping people make better decisions.

Highly trained scientists seem especially willing to share what they’ve learned if they think it can help society make smarter choices. 

Scientists are more likely to say they’re willing to communicate, as well as to prioritize specific objectives or tactics, if they see a choice as ethical, able to make a difference and within their capacity.

https://theconversation.com/scientists-dont-share-their-findings-fo...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 10 hours ago

An acoustically actuated microscopic device

Researchers  have developed remote-controlled, mechanical microdevices that, when inserted into human tissue, can manipulate the fluid that surrounds them, collect cells or release drugs. This breakthrough offers numerous potential applications in the biomedical field, from diagnostics to therapy.

Murat Kaynak, Pietro Dirix, and Mahmut Selman Sakar. “Addressable Acoustic Actuation of 3D Printed Soft Robotic Microsystems,” Advanced Science, 2020.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/advs.202001120 

https://actu.epfl.ch/news/an-acoustically-actuated-microscopic-devi...

https://researchnews.cc/news/2649/An-acoustically-actuated-microsco...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 10 hours ago

Without oxygen, Earth's early microbes relied on arsenic to sustain life

Much of life on planet Earth today relies on oxygen to exist, but before oxygen was present on our blue planet, lifeforms likely used arsenic instead. These findings are detailed in research published recently.

A key component of the oxygen cycle is where plants and some types of bacteria essentially take sunlight, water, and CO2, and convert them to carbohydrates and oxygen, which are then cycled and used by other organisms that breathe oxygen. This oxygen serves as a vehicle for electrons, gaining and donating electrons as it powers through the . However, for half of the time life has existed on Earth, there was no oxygen present, and for the first 1.5 billion years.

Light-driven, photosynthetic organisms appear in the  as layered  called stromatolites dating to around 3.7 billion years ago, says Visscher. Stromatolite mats are deposited over the eons by , with each layer holding clues about life at that time. There are contemporary examples of microbes that photosynthesize in the absence of oxygen using a variety of elements to complete the process, however it's unclear how this happened in the earliest life forms.

Theories as to how life's processes functioned in the absence of oxygen have mostly relied on hydrogen, sulfur, or iron as the elements that ferried electrons around to fulfill the metabolic needs of organisms. These theories were contested though.

Arsenic is another theoretical possibility, and evidence for that was found in 2008.The link with arsenic was strengthened in 2014 when researchers found evidence of arsenic-based photosynthesis in deep time.

 found a blood red river. The red sediments are made up by anoxogenic photosynthetic bacteria. The water is very high in arsenic as well. The water that flows over the mats contains  that is volcanic in origin and it flows very rapidly over these mats. There is absolutely no oxygen."

The team also showed that the mats were making carbonate deposits and creating a new generation of stromatolites. The carbonate materials also showed evidence for arsenic cycling—that arsenic is serving as a vehicle for electrons—proving that the microbes are actively metabolizing arsenic, much like oxygen in modern systems. Visscher says these findings, along with the fossil evidence, gives a strong sense of the early conditions of Earth.

Pieter T. Visscher et al. Modern arsenotrophic microbial mats provide an analog for life in the anoxic Archean, Communications Earth & Environment (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s43247-020-00025-2

https://phys.org/news/2020-09-oxygen-earth-early-microbes-arsenic.h...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 11 hours ago

New finding: Why some cancers may respond poorly to key drugs 

Patients with BRCA1/2 mutations are at higher risk for breast, ovarian and prostate cancers that can be aggressive when they develop—and, in many cases, resistant to lifesaving drugs. Now scientists  have identified a driver of the drug resistance that can make a life or death difference for patients with these cancers.

A major issue with cancer treatments is the development of resistance. When treatments stop working for patients, it's incredibly demoralizing and it's been a huge drive in research to understand these resistance mechanisms.

In a new paper published, researchers describe a protein that may help doctors predict which patients will become resistant to a class of drugs frequently used to treat BRCA 1/2-deficient tumours. The finding could help create more effective treatment plans for their patients.

The scientists identified that a protein called PCAF promotes DNA damage in BRCA 1/2-mutated cancer cells. Patients with low levels of this protein are likely to have poor outcomes and develop resistance to a type of drug that is used to treat BRCA-deficient tumors, called a PARP inhibitor.

PARP inhibitors are an important breakthrough in treating these aggressive cancers. What the researchers  found now 's that when levels of PCAF are low, it actually protects the cancer cells from this drug. By testing biopsy samples, doctors may be able to tell using PCAF as a molecular marker for PARP inhibitor responses what treatment may work best for a patient."

Fortunately, there is already another class of drugs on the market, called HDAC inhibitors, that can boost the effectiveness of the PCAF protein. HDAC inhibitors and PARP inhibitors have the potential to be prescribed as a combination therapy.

Molecular Cell (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2020.08.018

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-09-cancers-poorly-key-drugs.htm...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 12 hours ago

New drug candidate found for hand, foot and mouth disease

A study  offers some good news in the search for antiviral drugs for hard-to-treat diseases. Researchers have identified a potential new drug candidate against enterovirus 71, a common cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. While most people get better within 7 to 10 days after suffering little more than a fever and rash, severe cases can cause brain inflammation, paralysis and even death.

The compound of interest is a small molecule that binds to RNA, the virus's genetic material, and changes its 3-D shape in a way that stops the virus from multiplying without harming its human host.

"Small Molecule Targeting IRES Domain Inhibits Enterovirus 71 Replication via an Allosteric Mechanism that Stabilizes a Ternary Complex," Nature Communications (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-18594-3

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-09-drug-candidate-foot-mouth-di...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 12 hours ago

Scientists identify hormone that might help treat malabsorption

Scientists  used human intestinal organoids grown from stem cells to discover how our bodies control the absorption of nutrients from the food we eat. They further found that one hormone might be able to reverse a congenital disorder in babies who cannot adequately absorb nutrients and need intravenous feeding to survive.

Researchers found that the hormone peptide YY, also called PYY, can reverse congenital malabsorption in mice. With a single PYY injection per day, 80% of the mice survived. Normally, only 20% to 30% survive. This indicates PYY might be a possible therapeutic for people with severe malabsorption.

Poor absorption of macronutrients is a global health concern, underlying ailments such as malnutrition, intestinal infections and short-gut syndrome. So, identification of factors regulating nutrient absorption has significant therapeutic potential. Scientists reported that the absorption of nutrients—in particular, carbohydrates and proteins—is controlled by enteroendocrine cells  in the gastrointestinal tract.

Babies born without enteroendocrine cells —or whose enteroendocrine cells don't function properly—have severe malabsorption and require IV nutrition. This work could help them.

Enteroendocrine cells couple nutrient sensing to nutrient absorption by regulating ion transport," Nature Communications (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-18536-z

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-09-scientists-hormone-malabsorp...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 13 hours ago

Evolution of radio-resistance is very complicated 

The toughest organisms on Earth, called extremophiles, can survive extreme conditions like extreme dryness (desiccation), extreme cold, space vacuum, acid, or even high-level radiation. So far, the toughest of all seems to be the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans—able to survive doses of radiation a thousand times greater than those fatal to humans. 

How this radio-resistance could have evolved in several organisms on our planet, naturally protected from solar radiation by its magnetic field? While some scientists suggest that radio-resistance in extremophile organisms could have evolved along with other kinds of resistance, such as resistance to desiccation, a question remained: which genes are specifically involved in radio-resistance?

To find out the researchers started with the naturally non-resistant bacteria, E. coli, and exposed it to iterative cycles of high-level irradiation. After many rounds of radiation exposure and outgrowth, a few radio-resistant populations emerged. Using whole-genome sequencing, the researchers studied the genetic alterations present in each radio-resistant population and determined which mutation provided radio-resistance to the bacteria.

The study of their genetic profile highlighted three mutations responsible for radio-resistance—all in genes linked to DNA repair mechanisms. The results show that the populations of radioresistant E. coli, continued to evolve and sub-populations emerged. Surprisingly, while radio-resistance induced by the first series of ionization could mainly be associated with three mutations, the second induced hundreds of mutations including large deletions and duplications of several genes. The four populations scienitsts are evolving in this new trial have now achieved levels of radio-resistance that are approaching the levels seen with Deinococcus radiodurans. As the current trial has progressed, the genomic alterations have proven to be much more complex than anticipated.

The researchers show that more cellular metabolisms are affected (ATP synthesis, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, cadaverine synthesis, and reactive oxygen species response). Furthermore, this study proves that radio-resistance can develop to the level of Deinococcus radiodurans, independently to desiccation-resistance. 

As the exposition to radiation and experimental evolution continues, more data are gathered on how to induce radio-resistance in bacteria. This could one day constitute a precious toolbox of mutations to engineer radioresistant probiotics helping for example patients treated with radiotherapy, or astronauts exposed to space radiation.

 Frontiers in MicrobiologyDOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.582590 , www.frontiersin.org/articles/1 … 2020.582590/abstract

https://phys.org/news/2020-09-evolution-radio-resistance-complicate...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

Solstices and equinoxes are the products of Earth's axial tilt: the degree to which the planet is tilted relative to the Sun.

The axis around which the Earth spins isn't straight up and down - it's about 23.5 degrees off. Because of that, different parts of the Earth get exposed to more or less sunlight as the planet rotates around the Sun. That's why we have seasons.

It's also why the northern and Southern Hemisphere experience seasons at opposite times: During winter in the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere is tilted more towards the Sun, and vice versa.

Meanwhile, Earth is also constantly rotating, which keeps its heating even - kind of like a planet-sized rotisserie chicken twisting over a spit.

The axial tilt's most dramatic effect comes during the solstices, since those are the two days when one side of the planet is tilted the farthest away from the Sun and the other is the closest. On December 21, the Northern Hemisphere receives less than nine hours of daylight, while the Southern Hemisphere receives more than 15.

https://www.sciencealert.com/the-september-equinox-is-this-tuesday-...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

How your brain finds the good objects

How your brain finds the good objects

In the wild, it is essential for animals to pick out good or bad objects within their visual field. Whether it be food or predator, split-second recognition and action need to be made for survival.

https://researchnews.cc/news/2629/How-your-brain-finds-the-good-obj...

The underlying mechanisms that govern this behavior in the brain has been gradually uncovered by researchers. Nowscientists have revealed how the brain controls eye movements toward the 'good objects'.

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Seismic data explains continental collision beneath Tibet

https://phys.org/news/2020-09-seismic-continental-collision-beneath...

 

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