Science, Art, Litt, Science based Art & Science Communication


Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 21
Latest Activity: on Tuesday


     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 573 articles posted here. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs peopel asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28



Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53


part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...


BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  thier children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis


o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 


b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here:

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

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Discussion Forum

What are Biosafety Labs?

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Tuesday. 2 Replies

                                                                              Stop! You cannot go beyond this sign if you are not a trained scientist or a lab technician! Turn back and move…Continue

The science of science communication

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Tuesday. 0 Replies

Q: What is the science of science communication?Krishna: Most people think science communication is an art! :)The art of making layman understand complex scientific research in simple terms. It is…Continue

How Some Microorganisms Bend the Rules of Evolution

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Oct 19. 1 Reply

The dominant thinking in evolution focuses on inheritance between parent and offspring – or 'vertical gene transfer (VGT)'.But now scientists are paying more attention to 'horizontal gene transfer…Continue

Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them - part 213

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Oct 19. 1 Reply

Q by VKJ: How does science(s) answer “why should (not) I kill that insect stinging me on my toe?”?Krishna: Well, the insect (like bee or some insects like it) might be useful in pollination which…Continue

Comment Wall


You need to be a member of Science Simplified! to add comments!

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Tuesday

Vocal discrimination of African lions and its potential for collar-free tracking

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Tuesday

Scientists discover the unique signature of a lion's roar using machine learning

The roar of a lion is one of the most thrilling and captivating sounds of the wild. This characteristic call is typically delivered in a bout consisting of one or two soft moans followed by several loud, full-throated roars and a terminating sequence of grunts.

A team of scientists based in WildCRU at the University of Oxford, well-known for their research involving Cecil the Lion, has teamed up with colleagues in the Department of Computer Science to discover the precise ways in which each lion’s roar is distinct, identifiable and trackable.

Harnessing new machine learning techniques, the group designed a device, known as a biologger, which can be attached to an existing lion GPS collar to record audio and movement data. The biologgers allow the scientists to confidently associate each roar with the correct lion by cross-referencing movement and audio data through the large datasets of roar recordings collected.

With the data collected by the biologgers, the scientists trained a pattern recognition algorithm to “learn” each individual’s roars and then tested the algorithm on sequences that it had not seen before to determine whether the shape of the contour as a whole is an important distinguishing feature.

Results, published in Bioacoustics, reveal that it is possible to classify roars according to individual identity with 91.5% accuracy. These findings suggest that the overall shape of the fundamental frequency (f0) of the full-throated roar contour is consistent within each individuals’ roars and sufficiently different from other individuals to allow for accurate classification of individual identity.

Previous research has shown that lions can recognise the calls of other individuals, allowing them to locate distant companions and also to avoid potentially hostile neighbours. These new findings reveal a possible mechanism for individual vocal recognition amongst African lions. They indicate that individual lions may be able to learn the subtle variations in the fundamental frequency of other lions’ roars and thereby associate particular variations with particular identities.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Tuesday

Tropical cyclones moving faster in recent decades: study

Tropical cyclones, regionally known as hurricanes or typhoons, have been moving across ocean basins faster since 1982, according to a new study published in Environmental Research Letters.

If hurricanes move faster they would pose danger to coastal communities and emergency managers because they would have less time to prepare for evacuation and other measures.

The recent study suggests the reason for the observed changes is a combination of natural variations and human-induced climate change.

Sung-Hun Kim et al, An increase in global trends of tropical cyclone translation speed since 1982 and its physical causes, Environmental Research Letters (2020). DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/ab9e1f

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Tuesday

High levels of microplastics released from infant feeding bottles during formula prep

New research shows that high levels of microplastics (MPs) are released from infant-feeding bottles (IFBs) during formula preparation. The research also indicates a strong relationship between heat and MP release, such that warmer liquids (formula or water used to sterilise bottles) result in far greater release of MPs.

In response, the researchers involved have developed a set of recommendations for infant formula preparation when using plastic IFBs that minimise MP release.

Key findings

  • PP-IFBs can release up to 16 million MPs and trillions of smaller nanoplastics per litre. Sterilisation and exposure to high temperature water significantly increase  release from 0.6 million to 55 million particles/l when temperature increases from 25 to 95 °C
  • Other polypropylene plastic-ware products (kettles, lunchboxes) release similar levels of MPs
  • The team undertook a global survey and estimated the exposure of 12-month-old infants to microplastics in 48 regions. Following current guidelines for infant-feeding  sterilisation and feeding formula preparation the average daily exposure level for infants is in excess of 1 million MPs. Oceania, North America and Europe have the highest levels of potential exposure, at 2,100,000, 2,280,000, and 2,610,000 particles/day, respectively
  • The level of microplastics released from PP-IFBs can be significantly reduced by following modified sterilisation and formula preparation procedures

Recommended sterilisation and formula preparation procedures

  • Sterilising infant feeding bottles
  • Sterilise the bottle following WHO recommended guidelines and allow to cool
  • Prepare sterilised water by boiling in a non-plastic kettle/cooker (e.g. glass or stainless steel)
  • Rinse the sterilised bottle using room temperature sterilised water at least 3 times

Preparing infant formula

  • Prepare hot water using a non-plastic kettle/cooker
  • Prepare infant formula in a non-plastic container using at least 70 C water. Cool to room temperature and transfer prepared formula into a high-quality plastic infant feeding bottle

Standard Precautions

  • Do not reheat prepared formula in plastic containers and avoid microwave ovens
  • Do not vigorously shake the formula in the bottle at any time
  • Do not use sonication to clean plastic infant feeding bottles

Microplastic release from the degradation of polypropylene feeding bottles during infant formula preparation, Nature Food (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s43016-020-00171-y ,

Kieran D. Cox et al. Human Consumption of Microplastics, Environmental Science & Technology (2019). DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.9b01517

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Tuesday

Scientists encapsulate quantum dots in salt

It's widely known that submerging a pared apple in saltwater prevents oxidation and browning, but did you know that saltwater can also protect fragile quantum dot (QD) materials? A research team led by Prof. Chen Hsueh-Shih of the Department of Materials Science & Engineering at National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan has recently developed the world's first inkjet technique for using saltwater to encapsulate QD materials, which not only resists water and oxygen corrosion, but can also be uniformly printed as a flexible plastic film on a micro LED array for use in high-resolution bendable screens for mobile phones, glasses, etc.

 Shih-Jung Ho et al. Inkjet-Printed Salt-Encapsulated Quantum Dot Film for UV-Based RGB Color-Converted Micro-Light Emitting Diode Displays, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces (2020). DOI: 10.1021/acsami.0c05646



Researchers develop magnetically switchable mechano-chemotherapy to...

Prof. Wu Aiguo's team at the Cixi Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering (NIMTE) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) developed a novel therapeutic method termed mechano-chemotherapy, which can efficiently overcome tumor drug resistance. The study was published in Nano Today.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Tuesday

Coronavirus survives on skin five times longer than flu: study

The coronavirus remains active on human skin for nine hours, researchers have found, in a discovery they said showed the need for frequent hand washing to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

The findings ‘re published this month in the Clinical Infectious Diseases journal.

The pathogen that causes the flu survives on human skin for about 1.8 hours by comparison. The nine-hour survival of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus strain that causes COVID-19) on human skin may increase the risk of contact transmission in comparison with IAV (influenza A virus), thus accelerating the pandemic.

The research team tested skin collected from autopsy specimens, about one day after death.

Both the coronavirus and the flu virus are inactivated within 15 seconds by applying ethanol, which is used in hand sanitisers.

"The longer survival of SARS-CoV-2 on the skin increases contact-transmission risk; however, hand hygiene can reduce this risk," the study said.

Clinical Infectious Diseases

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Tuesday

'Classified knots': Researchers create optical framed knots to encode information

In a world first, scientists have been able to create optical framed knots in the laboratory that could potentially be applied in modern technologies. Their work opens the door to new methods of distributing secret cryptographic keys—used to encrypt and decrypt data, ensure secure communication and protect private information.

This is fundamentally important, in particular from a topology-focused perspective, since framed knots provide a platform for topological quantum computations. In addition, they used these non-trivial optical structures as information carriers and developed a security protocol for classical communication where information is encoded within these framed knots.


The group tried to achieve the  result  within an optical beam, which presents a high level of difficulty. After a few tries (and knots that looked more like knotted strings), the group came up with what they were looking for: a knotted ribbon structure that is quintessential to framed knots.

In order to add this ribbon, the group relied on beam-shaping techniques manipulating the vectorial nature of light," explained Hugo Larocque. "By modifying the oscillation direction of the light field along an "unframed" optical knot, we were able to assign a frame to the latter by "gluing" together the lines traced out by these oscillating fields.

According to the researchers, structured light beams are being widely exploited for encoding and distributing information.

Hugo Larocque et al, Optical framed knots as information carriers, Nature Communications (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-18792-z

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on October 19, 2020 at 8:01am

Climate change likely drove early human species to extinction, mode...

Of the six or more different species of early humans, all belonging to the genus Homo, only we Homo sapiens have managed to survive. Now, a study reported in the journal One Earth on October 15 combining climate modeling and the fossil record in search of clues to what led to all those earlier extinctions of our ancient ancestors suggests that climate change—the inability to adapt to either warming or cooling temperatures—likely played a major role in sealing their fate.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on October 19, 2020 at 5:48am

Octopus-inspired thin tissue transfer

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on October 18, 2020 at 10:24am

India trusts the scientists the most says a survey

A recent report by the International Science Survey 2019-2020, say more than half of the Indians trust scientists and believe what they’re doing is right. when compared to few other countries around the globe, the degree of trust in India is higher than in many Western countries like the United States, Australia, United Kingdom, and Germany.

The Top 10 countries are given below:

1. India

59% of the respondents in India have “a lot” of trust in scientists to do what is right. 26% had “some” trust”, while 5% “not too much” trust.

2. Australia

48% responded with lot of trust, 34% responded with some trust. 

3. Spain

Similar to Australia 48% Spaniards believe in the goodwill of scientists, while 32% show only some trust and 17% claimed that they had no faith in scientists.

4. Netherlands

47% people have “a lot” of trust in scientists, while 38% had “some” degree of trust. 

5. Sweden

46% Swedes put their faith in scientists, while 44% exhibit some trust.

6. Canada

45% Canadians believe “a lot” in scientists, while 37% had “some” degree of faith.

7. Germany

43% exhibited “a lot” of trust in scientists, while 39% only trusted them to some degree.

8. Czech Republic

42% Czech believe in scientists and their goodwill.

9. United Kingdom

42% trust scientists and what they do, while 37% only trust them to some extent.

10. United States

The world’s No: 1 economy comes iat No 10 position, where 38% have a “lot of” faith in scientists, while 39% only had “some” faith.

whether the ancient healing methods or the Indian scientis community in research labs around the globe and the potential there is some factor which makes us to believe in the scientists.


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