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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 21
Latest Activity: 17 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 573 articles posted here. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs peopel asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......185

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  thier children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

Science doesn't endorse castes

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday. 1 Reply

Q: What is the scientific definition of caste?Krishna: There is no scientific definition. There are social definitions (1).Caste: 1. one of the hereditary social classes in Hinduism that restrict the…Continue

What are Biosafety Labs?

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jun 15. 3 Replies

                                                                              Stop! You cannot go beyond this sign if you are not a trained scientist or a lab technician! Turn back and move…Continue

Mirror hand syndrome

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jun 13. 1 Reply

Heard about it? Or its scientific name?Mirror hand or ulnar dimelia is a rare congenital anomaly of the upper limb. Typically there are seven digits which are symmetrical along a sagittal axis with…Continue

Optical illusions cannot check stress levels

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jun 13. 1 Reply

Can optical illusions check stress levels?NO!The claim: An optical illusion created by a Japanese neurologist can reveal how stressed you are.A claim on social media says that if the image is still,…Continue

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You need to be a member of Science Simplified! to add comments!

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 16, 2021 at 8:08am

The electron merry-go-round: Researchers find new mechanism for cla...

Photoemission is a property of metals and other materials that emit electrons when struck by light. Electron emission after light absorption was already explained by Albert Einstein. But since this effect is a highly complex process, scientists have still not been able to fully elucidate its details. Prof. Dr. Bernd von Issendorff and his team at the University of Freiburg's Institute of Physics have now succeeded in detecting a previously unknown quantum effect in the angular distributions of photoelectrons from cryogenic mass-selected metal clusters. The angular distributions resemble those of classical particles, a behavior that is surprisingly explainable by the strong electron-electron interaction in these many-electron systems. The researchers published this finding in the current issue of Physical Review Letters.

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Use of PFAS in cosmetics 'widespread,' new study finds

Many cosmetics sold in the United States and Canada likely contain high levels of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a potentially toxic class of chemicals linked to a number of serious health conditions, according to new research from the University of Notre Dame.

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Study: Half of US cosmetics contain toxic chemicals

More than half the cosmetics sold in the United States and Canada likely contain high levels of a toxic industrial compound linked to serious health conditions, including cancer and reduced birth weight, according to a new study.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 16, 2021 at 8:02am

Scientists discover unreported plant body part

A previously unreported anatomical structure named the 'cantil' has been described in the popular plant model, Arabidopsis thaliana. Scientists reveal that the cantil forms between the stem and flower-bearing stalk when flowering is delayed. Published in the journal Development, this study highlights that there are still discoveries to be made, even in some of the most meticulously studied species, and provides new clues for understanding conditional growth in plants.

Cantils are rare; they only develop under certain conditions that cause the plant to delay flowering, such as short day lengths, and cantils only form at the precise point at which the plant begins to flower.

However, some popular Arabidopsis strains have  that make them incapable of producing cantils at all.

Gookin, T. E. and Assmann, S. M. (2021). Cantil: a previously unreported organ in wild-type Arabidopsis regulated by FT, ERECTA and heterotrimeric G proteins. Development, 148, dev195545. DOI: 10.1242/dev.195545

https://phys.org/news/2021-06-scientists-unreported-body.html?utm_s...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 16, 2021 at 7:39am

Combining classical and quantum computing opens door to new discoveries

Researchers have discovered a new and more efficient computing method for pairing the reliability of a classical computer with the strength of a quantum system.

This new computing method opens the door to different algorithms and experiments that bring quantum researchers closer to near-term applications and discoveries of the technology.

In the future, quantum computers could be used in a wide variety of applications including helping to remove  from the atmosphere, developing artificial limbs and designing more efficient pharmaceuticals.

The research team  is the first to propose the measurement-based approach in a  with a regular , inventing a new way to tackle hard computing problems. Their method is resource-efficient and therefore can use small quantum states because they are custom-tailored to specific types of problems.

Hybrid computing, where a regular computer's processor and a quantum co-processor are paired into a feedback loop, gives researchers a more robust and flexible approach than trying to use a quantum computer alone.

While researchers are currently building hybrid, computers based on quantum gates, this research team was interested in the quantum computations that could be done without gates. They designed an algorithm in which a hybrid quantum-classical computation is carried out by performing a sequence of measurements on an entangled quantum state.

The team's theoretical research is good news for quantum software developers and experimentalists because it provides a new way of thinking about optimization algorithms. The algorithm offers high error tolerance, often an issue in quantum systems, and works for a wide range of quantum systems, including photonic quantum co-processors.

 R. R. Ferguson et al, Measurement-Based Variational Quantum Eigensolver, Physical Review Letters (2021). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.220501

https://phys.org/news/2021-06-combining-classical-quantum-door-disc...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 16, 2021 at 7:33am

Study finds association between head impacts and imaging changes in youth football players

A new study shows that head impacts experienced during practice are associated with changes in brain imaging of young players over multiple seasons.

A group of 16 youth athletes who participated in non-contact sports, such as swimming, tennis and track, served as the control group in the study.

Pre- and post-season MRIs were completed for both groups of study participants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a type of neuroimaging that can be used to assess the integrity of the brain's white matter, indicating possible sites of injury.

In addition, the research team gathered biomechanical data of linear and rotational head accelerations of head impacts from the football group during all practice and games via the Riddell Head Impact Telemetry System in the helmets. That information was transmitted in real time to a sideline data collection field unit for later analysis.

In 19 of the 47 youth football athletes, brain images were obtained pre- and post-season for two consecutive football seasons. Using data from the DTIs and the head impact telemetry system, the researchers found variations in head impact exposures (i.e., the number and severity of head impacts measured) from year-to-year and between athletes. For example, in an examination of data from three consecutive seasons, some youths experienced more impacts in their second year of play than in their first, while other youths experienced fewer impacts in later years of play.

They observed variability in the amount and direction of imaging changes in the brain related to the amount of exposure that the players experienced on the field. If  efforts are taken to reduce that exposure on-field,  changes in brain imaging can be potentially mitigated.

These findings further support ongoing efforts to reduce the number of head impacts in football practices.

Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatricsthejns.org/doi/full/10.3171/2021.1.PEDS20586

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-06-association-impacts-imaging-...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 16, 2021 at 7:19am

New treatment stops progression of Alzheimer's disease in monkey brains

A new therapy prompts immune defense cells to swallow misshapen proteins, amyloid beta plaques and tau tangles, whose buildup is known to kill nearby brain cells as part of Alzheimer's disease, a new study shows.

Led by researchers at NYU Grossman School of Medicine, the investigation showed that elderly monkeys had up to 59 percent fewer plaque deposits in their brains after treatment with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN), compared with untreated animals. These  are protein fragments that clump together and clog the junctions between  (neurons).

Brains of treated animals also had a drop in levels of toxic tau. This nerve fiber protein can destroy neighboring tissue when disease-related changes to its chemical structure causes it to catch on other cells.

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-06-treatment-alzheimer-disease-...

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 15, 2021 at 3:02pm

Deposits of Copper And Magnetic Iron Found in Alzheimer's Patients'...

Scarce as they are,  copper and iron metals are necessary for our survival, playing essential roles in human growth and metabolism. But one place we wouldn't expect to find either is clumped inside our brain cells.

However, for people with the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease, something seems to be turning these elements into microscopic ingots.

A team of researchers from the US and UK spotted the tell-tale glint of copper and iron in their elemental forms using a form of X-ray microscopy (STXM) on samples of neural plaques taken from the frontal and temporal lobes of Alzheimer's patients.

Plaques are a typical feature of this particular form of dementia, made up of proteins broken down into what's known as beta-amyloid.

Yet therapies focused on clearing clumps of beta-amyloid from the brain haven't led us much closer to a treatment for Alzheimer's, leaving researchers wondering what role – if any – they play in the disease's progress.

Ongoing research has continued to build a picture surrounding the biology that could be responsible for the plaques, with researchers looking at their formation and taste for destruction from every angle.

One angle that hasn't been fully explored is the toxic effect of biomineralization, or the accumulation of minerals such as hematite in brain cells.

Trapped as a charged ionic form inside hemoglobin, iron is a handy way to transport oxygen around the body. And few places are as desperate for oxygen as the human brain.

Once released from its protein shackles, however, iron shows its nasty side as what's known as its labile form, generating reactive species of oxygen that wreak havoc on delicate biochemistry and destroying cells.

High levels of labile iron have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's before. Similarly, copper is another mineral typically shielded safely in a protein, yet thoroughly capable of making a mess of our brains in labile form.

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/7/24/eabf6707

https://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-identify-deposits-of-copper...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 15, 2021 at 11:39am

Microbes in ocean play important role in moderating Earth's temperature

Methane is a strong greenhouse gas that plays a key role in Earth's climate. Anytime we use natural gas, whether we light up our kitchen stove or barbeque, we are using methane.

Only three sources on Earth produce  naturally: volcanoes, subsurface water-rock interactions, and . Between these three sources, most is generated by microbes, which have deposited hundreds of gigatons of methane into the deep seafloor. At seafloor methane seeps, it percolates upwards toward the , and microbial communities consume the majority of this methane before it reaches the atmosphere. Over the years, researchers are finding more and more methane beneath the seafloor, yet very little ever leaves the oceans and gets into the atmosphere. Where is the rest going?

A team of researchers now discovered that microbial communities that rapidly consume the methane, preventing its escape into Earth's atmosphere. The study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences collected and examined methane-eating microbes from seven geologically diverse seafloor seeps and found, most surprisingly, that the carbonate rocks from one site in particular hosts methane-oxidizing microbial communities with the highest rates of methane consumption measured to date.

The microbes in these carbonate rocks are acting like a methane bio filter consuming it all before it leaves the ocean.

Jeffrey J. Marlow el al., "Carbonate-hosted microbial communities are prolific and pervasive methane oxidizers at geologically diverse marine methane seep sites," PNAS (2021). www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.2006857118

https://phys.org/news/2021-06-microbes-ocean-important-role-moderat...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 15, 2021 at 11:30am

Dark matter is slowing the spin of the Milky Way's galactic bar

The spin of the Milky Way's galactic bar, which is made up of billions of clustered stars, has slowed by about a quarter since its formation, according to a new study by researchers.

For 30 years, astrophysicists have predicted such a slowdown, but this is the first time it has been measured.

The researchers say it gives a new type of insight into the nature of dark matter, which acts like a counterweight slowing the spin.

Researchers analysed Gaia space telescope observations of a large group of stars, the Hercules stream, which are in resonance with the bar—that is, they revolve around the galaxy at the same rate as the bar's spin.

These stars are gravitationally trapped by the spinning bar. The same phenomenon occurs with Jupiter's Trojan and Greek asteroids, which orbit Jupiter's Lagrange points (ahead and behind Jupiter). If the bar's spin slows down, these stars would be expected to move further out in the galaxy, keeping their orbital period matched to that of the bar's spin.

The researchers found that the stars in the stream carry a chemical fingerprint—they are richer in heavier elements (called metals in astronomy), proving that they have traveled away from the galactic center, where stars and star-forming gas are about 10 times as rich in metals compared to the outer galaxy.

Using this data, the team inferred that the bar—made up of billions of stars and trillions of solar masses—had slowed down its spin by at least 24% since it first formed.

The counterweight slowing this spin must be dark matter. Until now, researchers  have only been able to infer dark matter by mapping the gravitational potential of galaxies and subtracting the contribution from visible matter.

This new research provides a new type of measurement of dark matter—not of its gravitational energy, but of its inertial mass (the dynamical response), which slows the bar's spin.

 Rimpei Chiba et al, Tree-ring structure of Galactic bar resonance, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2021). DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stab1094

https://phys.org/news/2021-06-dark-milky-galactic-bar.html?utm_sour...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 14, 2021 at 12:28pm

A 36-year-old woman in South Africa with HIV carried Covid for 216 days, during which Covid viruses accumulated 32 mutations - 13 to the spike protein (could help Covid viruses escape immune responses).

If more such cases are found, it raises the prospect that HIV infection could be a source of new variants simply because the patients could carry the virus for longer.

Scientists only spotted this case because she was enrolled in a study of 300 people with HIV looking at their immune response to Covid.

The researchers also found that four other people with HIV had carried the coronavirus for longer than a month.

…there have been reported cases of people with kidney transplants testing positive for almost a year.

The finding could be of particular importance for Africa, which had about 26 million people living with HIV in 2020. The WHO on Friday warned that a sharp rise in COVID-19 cases could turn into a continentwide third wave of Covid.

https://www.krisp.org.za/publications.php?pubid=336

https://www.businessinsider.in/science/news/a-woman-with-hiv-had-th...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on June 14, 2021 at 7:42am

Russel's Tea pot and the thought experiment

A quick explanation of Russell's Teapot, a thought experiment demonstrating that the burden of proof rests on the claimant.

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