Science, Art, Litt, Science based Art & Science Communication


Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 21
Latest Activity: 2 hours ago


     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 573 articles posted here. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs peopel asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28



Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53


part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...


BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  thier children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis


o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 


b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here:

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID:

Discussion Forum


Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Apr 10. 0 Replies

Q: What is proning?Krishna: If you feel breathless during covid, as some patients experience mild respiratory distress who do not need a ventilator, or those who could progress to severe respiratory…Continue

Sci-Com Videos

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Apr 10. 1 Reply

Science Today: Communicating ScienceHow to explain scientific ideas: 6 SIMPLE tips from a communication expertContinue

Qs people asked about science and my replies to them -Part 235

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Apr 9. 1 Reply

Q: What are the differences and similarities of a polymath and an autodidact?Krishna: A polymath is a person of wide knowledge or learning. S/he is also a person whose expertise spans a significant…Continue

Effects of pregnant women smoking and drinking on their fetuses

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Apr 1. 2 Replies

                                     Ladies and gentlemen say 'no' to this toxic empowerment. We had a discussion on reforms recently. During the process some people expressed the opinion that  women…Continue

Comment Wall


You need to be a member of Science Simplified! to add comments!

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 23 hours ago

How the humble woodchip is cleaning up water worldwide

Australian pineapple, Danish trout, and Midwestern U.S. corn farmers are not often lumped together under the same agricultural umbrella. But they and many others who raise crops and animals face a common problem: excess nitrogen in drainage water. Whether it flows out to the Great Barrier Reef or the Gulf of Mexico, the nutrient contributes to harmful algal blooms that starve fish and other organisms of oxygen.

But there's a simple solution that significantly reduces the amount of nitrogen in drainage water, regardless of the production system or location: denitrifying bioreactors.

Denitrifying bioreactors come in many shapes and sizes, but in their simplest form, they're trenches filled with wood chips. Water from fields or aquaculture facilities flows through the trench, where bacteria living in wood chip crevices turn nitrate into a harmless gas that escapes into the air.

After gathering all the data, the message is bioreactors work.

, "Effectiveness of denitrifying bioreactors on water pollutant reduction from agricultural areas," is published in Transactions of the ASABE [DOI: 10.13031/trans.14011].

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 23 hours ago

Ants shrink their brains for motherhood — but can enlarge them when egg-laying ends

Brain volume plummets in ‘gamergate’ ants that gain the ability to reproduce, but rises again with a fall in fertility.

Ants might be small, but they have superhuman abilities, such as lifting objects that are many times their body weight. Now, researchers have found that some ants can even shrink and regrow their brains.

When their queen dies, the female workers in a colony of Indian jumping ants (Harpegnathos saltator) engage in weeks-long battles to establish new leadership. The winners, called gamergates, start to reproduce. Their ovaries become more active — but their brains shrink by about 20%, according to new  research.

To determine whether some of these changes are reversible, the scientists suppressed fertility in H. saltator gamergates. In response, most gamergates began hunting for food, a behaviour typical of worker ants devoted to foraging, and their brains expanded to reach a size roughly equal to that of foragers’ brains. Because foraging requires advanced cognitive abilities, brain re-expansion could help workers to return to forager status after they lose the battle over reproduction.

This is the first time that reversible changes in brain size on this scale have been observed in an insect, the researchers say.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday

Starving tuberculosis of sugars may be a new way to fight it

Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that claims over 1.5 million lives each year. The increase in TB cases that are resistant to the current antibiotics means that novel drugs to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are urgently needed. Researchers now have successfully discovered how Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses an essential sugar called trehalose, which provides a platform to design new and improved TB drugs and diagnostic agents.


Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent world-wide claiming over 1.5 million lives each year.

Mycobacterium  (Mtb) is a very unique pathogen and is able to survive in the human body for decades. One way that Mtb survives is by 'eating' scarce energy sources for nutrition, whilst at the same time the human host attempts to limit the food that is available.


However, we need a better understanding of Mtb's intracellular diet because inhibiting the pathways that allow Mtb to access and use essential food sources could be good targets for the development of new anti-tubercular agents.

One source of energy that Mtb uses is a sugar that is found in its own cell wall, called trehalose. It appears that Mtb has evolved a unique strategy to recycle and reuse this sugar to ensure that it does not waste any potential energy sources, which are in short supply.

The , which is responsible for the uptake of trehalose, called LpqY, is essential for Mtb to establish infection. If the LpqY protein is deleted and no longer able to function then Mtb can no longer supply itself with trehalose and becomes less pathogenic.

In the paper, "Structural basis of trehalose recognition by the mycobacterial LpqY-SugABC transporter," published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, researchers from the School of Life Sciences at the University of Warwick, have unraveled the  of how Mtb uses and transports trehalose, a process which is specific to Mtb and does not occur in humans.

The team used X-ray crystallography to determine the 3-dimensional structure of LpqY and analyzed how this important transport protein is able to bind and recognize trehalose. They then went on to use a number of experimental techniques which showed that LpqY is highly specific for trehalose, is also able to recognize sugars that are similar to trehalose with small modifications and map key recognition features.

 Christopher M. Furze et al. Structural basis of trehalose recognition by the mycobacterial LpqY-SugABC transporter, Journal of Biological Chemistry (2021). DOI: 10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100307

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday

Plastic Is Falling From the Sky. But Where’s It Coming From?

plastic rain is the new acid rainBut where is it all coming from?

New modeling published yesterday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that 84 percent of airborne microplastics in the American West actually comes from the roads outside of major cities. Another 11 percent could be blowing all the way in from the ocean. (The researchers who built the model reckon that microplastic particles stay airborne for nearly a week, and that’s more than enough time for them to cross continents and oceans.)

Microplastics—particles smaller than 5 millimeters—come from a number of sources. Plastic bags and bottles released into the environment break down into smaller and smaller bits. Your washing machine is another major source: When you launder synthetic clothing, tiny microfibers slough off and get flushed to a wastewater treatment plant. That facility filters out some of the microfibers, trapping them in “sludge,” the treated human waste that’s then applied to agricultural fields as fertilizer. That loads the soil with microplastic. A wastewater plant will then flush the remaining microfibers out to sea in the treated water. This has been happening for decades, and because plastics disintegrate but don’t ever really disappear, the amount in the ocean has been skyrocketing.

In fact, this new research shows there may now be more microplastic blowing out of the ocean at any given time than there is going into it. Put another way: So much has accumulated in the ocean that the land may now be a net importer of microplastic from the sea. These microplastics aren’t just washing ashore and accumulating on beaches. When waves crash and winds scour the ocean, they launch seawater droplets into the air. These obviously contain salt, but also organic matter and microplastics. Then the water evaporates, and you're left just with the aerosols or tiny floating bits of particulate matter.  last year, a group of researchers demonstrated this phenomenon with microplastics, showing that they turn up in sea breezes.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday

Microplastics rain from the sky

The atmosphere is laden with tiny plastic fragments. Researchers modelled the air above the western United States and found that it contains almost 1,000 tonnes of microplastic. Most — 84% — comes from roads, much of it from car tyres that constantly produce microplastics as they wear down. And 11% blows in from the ocean — which has so much plastic in it that most continents receive more from the marine environment than they put in.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday

3D-printed material to replace ivory for restoration of artifacts

For centuries, ivory was often used to make art objects. But to protect elephant populations, the ivory trade was banned internationally in 1989. To restore ivory parts of old art objects, one must therefore resort to substitute materials—such as bones, shells or plastic. However, there has not been a really satisfactory solution so far.

Researchers have now developed a high-tech substitute:  the novel material "Digory" consists of synthetic resin and calcium phosphate particles. It is processed in a hot, liquid state and hardened in the 3D printer with UV rays, exactly in the desired shape. It can then be polished and color-matched to create a deceptively authentic-looking ivory substitute.

 With the new material "Digory," not only is a better, more beautiful and easier to work with substitute for ivory available than before, the 3D technology also makes it possible to reproduce the finest details automatically. Instead of painstakingly carving them out of ivory substitute material, objects can now be printed in a matter of hours.

Thaddäa Rath et al. Developing an ivory-like material for stereolithography-based additive manufacturing, Applied Materials Today (2021). DOI: 10.1016/j.apmt.2021.101016

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday

Climate change makes Indian monsoon stronger, more erratic: study

Climate change is making India's monsoon stronger and more chaotic, scientists said recently, warning of potential severe consequences for food, farming and the economy affecting nearly a fifth of the world's population.

A new analysis comparing more than 30 climate models from around the world predicts more extremely wet rainy seasons, which sweep in from the sea from roughly June to September each year.

Researchers at the Potsdam-Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) found strong evidence that every degree Celsius of warming would likely increase monsoon rainfall by about five percent.

The study not only confirmed trends seen in previous research, but found "global warming is increasing monsoon rainfall in India even more than previously thought.

This raises the possibility that key crops—including rice—could be swamped during crucial growing stages.

Moreover, the monsoon is likely to become more erratic as warming increases, according to the study, published in the journal Earth System Dynamics.

Anja Katzenberger, Jacob Schewe, Julia Pongratz, Anders Levermann: Robust increase of Indian monsoon rainfall and its variability under future warming in CMIP-6 models. Earth System DynamicsDOI: 10.5194/esd-2020-80.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday

Power of light and oxygen clears Alzheimer's disease protein in live mice

A small, light-activated molecule recently tested in mice represents a new approach to eliminating clumps of amyloid protein found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. If perfected in humans, the technique could be used as an alternative approach to immunotherapy and used to treat other diseases caused by similar amyloids.

Researchers injected the molecule directly into the brains of live mice with Alzheimer's disease and then used a specialized probe to shine light into their brains for 30 minutes each day for one week. Chemical analysis of the mouse brain tissue showed that the treatment significantly reduced amyloid protein. Results from additional experiments using human brain samples donated by Alzheimer's disease patients supported the possibility of future use in humans.

The importance of this study is developing the technique to target the amyloid protein to enhance clearance of it by the immune system.


The small molecule that the research team developed is known as a photo-oxygenation catalyst. It appears to treat Alzheimer's disease via a two-step process.

First, the catalyst destabilizes the . Oxygenation, or adding , can make a molecule unstable by changing the chemical bonds holding it together. Laundry detergents or other cleaners known as oxygen bleach use a similar chemical principle.

The catalyst is designed to target the folded structure of amyloid and likely works by cross-linking specific portions called histidine residues. The catalyst is inert until it is activated with near-, so in the future, researchers imagine that the catalyst could be delivered throughout the body by injection into the bloodstream and targeted to specific areas using light.

Second, the destabilized amyloid is then removed by microglia, immune cells of the brain that clear away damaged cells and debris outside healthy cells.

Photo-oxygenation by a biocompatible catalyst reduces amyloid-β levels in Alzheimer's disease model, Brain (2021). DOI: 10.1093/brain/awab058

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday

Social wasps lose face recognition abilities in isolation

Just as humans are challenged from the social isolation caused by the coronavirus pandemic, a new study finds that a solitary lifestyle has profound effects on the brains of a social insect: paper wasps.

Paper  (Polistes fuscatus) recognize the brightly colored faces of other , an ability they lose when reared in isolation. The wasps' ability to remember faces is similar to primates and humans, but unlike other .

The study revealed that when adult wasps are housed in solitude, visual areas of their brains—especially those involved with identifying nuanced color patterns and shapes—are smaller and less developed than their peers who lived with other wasps.

Christopher M. Jernigan et al. Age and social experience induced plasticity across brain regions of the paper wasp Polistes fuscatus, Biology Letters (2021). DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2021.0073

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday

part 2

The scientists used a quantum antiferromagnet, known in the field as SCBO (from its chemical composition: SrCu2(BO3)2). Quantum antiferromagnets are especially useful for understanding how the quantum aspects of a material's structure affect its overall properties—for example, how the spins of its electrons interact to give its . SCBO is also a "frustrated" magnet, meaning that its electron spins can't stabilize in some orderly structure, and instead they adopt some uniquely quantum fluctuating states.

In a complex experiment, the researchers controlled both the pressure and the magnetic field applied to milligram pieces of SCBO. "This allowed us to look all around the discontinuous quantum phase transition and that way we found critical-point physics in a pure spin system.


performed high-precision measurements of the specific heat of SCBO, which showed its readiness to absorb energy. For example, water absorbs only small amounts of energy at -10 degrees C, but at 0 degrees C and 100 degrees C, it can take up huge amounts as every molecule is driven across the transitions from ice to liquid and liquid to gas. Just like water, the pressure-temperature relationship of SCBO forms a phase diagram showing a discontinuous transition line separating two quantum magnetic phases, with the line ending at a critical point.

Now, when a magnetic field is applied, the problem becomes richer than water. Neither magnetic phase is strongly affected by a small field, so the line becomes a wall of discontinuities in a three-dimensional phase diagram—but then one of the phases becomes unstable and the field helps push it towards a third phase."

A quantum magnetic analogue to the critical point of water, Nature (2021). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03411-8


Members (21)




© 2021   Created by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa.   Powered by

Badges  |  Report an Issue  |  Terms of Service