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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 33 minutes ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 845 articles posted here in this group. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......185

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  their children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

 A+. sci-com-what-makes-a-story-news-worthy-in-science

 B+. is-a-perfect-language-important-in-writing-science-stories

C+. https://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum/topics/sci-com-how-much-entertainment-is-too-much-while-communicating-sc

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

Sci-com: How much Entertainment is too much while communicating science

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday. 1 Reply

Recently one professor advised me to add some jokes to my articles related to science communication because, according to him, most people who read them are commoners and they will be interested in…Continue

Monkeypox: what you need to know

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday. 1 Reply

Four new cases of monkeypox have been reported in the UK, bringing the total number of confirmed…Continue

Researchers use galaxy as a 'cosmic telescope' to study heart of the young universe

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday. 1 Reply

They say where there is a will, there is  a way. Scientists use this will to find a way to do things that seem impossible in the ordinary world. In a scientific world, nothing is impossible!A unique…Continue

You can hear the sounds of aurora borealis even if you can't see it!

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday. 1 Reply

You can hear the sounds of aurora borealis even if you can't see it!Dr.…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Friday

Instead of looking at all possible chemical reactions, they identify the few that they might need to look at. They think that most tissues involved in the initiation of cancer are trying to be as homogenous as possible. The rule is a pathway that decreases heterogeneity is always going to be the fastest on the road to tumor formation.

The huge number of possible pathways seems to make narrowing them down an intractable problem. But it turned out that using their chemical intuition and building an effective free-energy landscape helped by allowing them to calculate where in the process a mutation is likely to become fixated in a cell.

The team simplified calculations by focusing initially on pathways involving only two mutations that, when fixed, initiate a tumor. Mechanisms involving more mutations will complicate calculations, but the procedure remains the same.

Hamid Teimouri, Cade Spaulding, Anatoly B. Kolomeisky. Optimal pathways control fixation of multiple mutations during cancer initiationBiophysical Journal, 2022; DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2022.05.011

Part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Friday

Chemists skew the odds to prevent cancer

The path to cancer prevention is long and arduous for legions of researchers, but new work by  scientists shows that there may be shortcuts.

They are developing a theoretical framework to explain how cancers caused by more than one genetic mutation can be more easily identified and perhaps stopped.

Essentially, it does so by identifying and ignoring transition pathways that don’t contribute much to the fixation of mutations in a cell that goes on to establish a tumor.

A study in the Biophysical Journal describes their analysis of the effective energy landscapes of cellular transformation pathways implicated in a variety of cancers. The ability to limit the number of pathways to the few most likely to kick-start cancer could help to find ways to halt the process before it ever really starts.

Sometimes cancer is just a probability coming true. These researchers  think they can decrease the probability by looking for low-probability collections of mutations that typically lead to cancer. Depending on the type of cancer, this can range between two mutations and 10.

Calculating the effective energies that dictate interactions in biomolecular systems can predict how they behave. The theory is commonly used to predict how a protein will fold, based on the sequence of its constituent atoms and how they interact.

The research team is applying the same principle to cancer initiation pathways that operate in cells but sometimes carry mutations missed by the body’s safeguards. When two or more of these mutations are fixed in a cell, they are carried forward as the cells divide and tumors grow.

Part 1

By their calculations, the odds favor the most dominant pathways, those that carry mutations forward while expending the least amount of energy

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Friday

Magnetic resonance makes the invisible visible

A small group of researchers just published in Nature Protocols an advanced NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) method to monitor fast and complicated biomolecular events such as protein folding.

Protein folding was long considered as one of the great mysteries of modern research. This crucial process during which amino acid chains adopt a 3D structure and functionality takes place within milliseconds. Being this fast, protein folding events could often not be characterized by NMR spectroscopy, which is the standard method for studying molecular structures. Employing hyperpolarized water, researchers have now developed a method that dramatically enhances the signals of the proteins, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules. This renders monitoring of processes such as protein folding possible.

With NMR spectroscopy, researchers can measure the magnetic properties of atoms and thus analyze the atomic structure of molecules in solution. This new method is based on NMR and enables the monitoring of biological processes in real-time. By using hyperpolarized water, the researchers significantly enhanced NMR signals of the investigated samples and therefore boost the method's sensitivity.

With hyperpolarization methods, more precisely dissolution DNP (D-DNP), a signal enhancement of over 10,000-fold is possible. The hyperpolarized water acts as a booster for the NMR signals of a protein during the measurement. The hydrogen nuclei of the hyperpolarized water are exchanged with those of the proteins, thus transferring the signal strength to the latter.

With the new method, the researchers can record an NMR spectrum every 100 milliseconds and use it to track the 3D coordinates of individual amino acids and how they change over time. This allows researchers to monitor processes that occur in milliseconds and distinguish individual atoms.

In their study the authors describe their technique in detail, from hyperpolarization to the transfer of the hyperpolarized water to the NMR spectrometer, to the mixing of the hyperpolarized water with the sample solution, and the NMR measurement.

In addition, they present six examples for method application, including the observation of protein folding or even the interactions of RNA (nucleic acids) and RNA-binding proteins as the basis for gene expressions in the cell. According to the scientists, the new method can be used for specific studies of RNA, DNA and polypeptides, especially when signal enhancement reaches the "magic" number of 1,000-fold.

An NMR spectrometer equipped with a hyperpolarization prototype is a prerequisite for NMR boosted by hyperpolarized water. However, this kind of infrastructure is not common yet.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41596-022-00693-8

https://www.nature.com/articles/s42004-021-00587-y

https://www.inar.de/magnetic-resonance-makes-the-invisible-visible/

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday

Climate change boosts extreme heat in India

In India and Pakistan, climate change has made record-breaking heatwaves 100 times more likely to happen, according to an analysis by the UK Met Office. The modelling study assessed the heatwave that gripped the region in April and May 2010 to determine how climate change has affected the probability of these events and found that, by the end of the century, India and Pakistan could face extreme temperatures every year. Pre-monsoon heatwaves in recent weeks have seen temperatures reach as high as 51 ℃ in Pakistan, and the heat looks set to worsen later this week.

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Ghostly 'mirror world' might be cause of cosmic controversy

New research suggests an unseen "mirror world" of particles that interacts with our world only via gravity that might be the key to solving a major puzzle in cosmology today—the Hubble constant problem.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday

Climate change indicators hit record highs in 2021: UN

Four key climate change indicators all set new record highs in 2021, the United Nations said Wednesday, warning that the global energy system was driving humanity towards catastrophe.

Greenhouse gas concentrations, sea level rise, ocean heat and ocean acidification all set new records last year, the UN's World Meteorological Organization (WMO) said in its "State of the Global Climate in 2021" report.

The annual overview is "a dismal litany of humanity's failure to tackle climate disruption".

"The global energy system is broken and bringing us ever closer to climate catastrophe."

The WMO said human activity was causing planetary-scale changes on land, in the ocean and in the atmosphere, with harmful and long-lasting ramifications for ecosystems.

https://phys.org/news/2022-05-climate-indicators-highs.html?utm_sou...

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'Polluted' babies, millions dead: Scientists sound alarm on global ...

By many measures, modern science has greatly improved the American way of life. Advances in chemistry and other technologies over the past century have made food more affordable and transportation more convenient and paved the way for a plethora of consumer goods. About 4 in 5 U.S. households own a computer and smartphone.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday

Wood-based foam to keep buildings cooler

Running air conditioners constantly in summer can be expensive and wasteful. Now, researchers reporting in the ACS journal Nano Letters have designed a lightweight foam made from wood-based cellulose nanocrystals that reflects sunlight, emits absorbed heat and is thermally insulating. They suggest that the material could reduce buildings' cooling energy needs by more than a third.

Although scientists have developed cooling materials, they have disadvantages. Some materials that passively release absorbed heat let a lot of heat through to buildings under the direct, midday sun of the summer months. And other materials that reflect sunlight don't work well in hot, humid or cloudy weather. So researchers wanted to develop a robust material that could reflect sunlight, passively release heat and keep wayward heat from passing through.

To generate a cooling material, the researchers connected cellulose nanocrystals together with a silane bridge, before freezing and freeze-drying the material under a vacuum. This process vertically aligned the nanocrystals, making a white, lightweight foam, which reflected 96% of visible light and emitted 92% of absorbed infrared radiation. When placed over an aluminum foil-lined box sitting outdoors at noon, the material kept the temperature inside the box 16 degrees F cooler than the temperature outside it. Also, the material kept the inside of the box 13 degrees F cooler when the air was humid. As the cellulose-based foam was compressed, its cooling ability decreased, revealing tunable cooling properties. The team calculated that placing the foam on the roof and exterior walls of a building could reduce its cooling energy needs by an average of 35.4%. Because the wood-based cellulose foam's performance can be tuned depending on weather conditions, the researcher say that the technology could be applied in a wide range of environments.

Chenyang Cai et al, Dynamically Tunable All-Weather Daytime Cellulose Aerogel Radiative Supercooler for Energy-Saving Building, Nano Letters (2022). DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c00844

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday

Scientists Just Measured a Mechanical Quantum System Without Destroying It

There's a key aspect of quantum computing you may not have thought about before. Called 'quantum non-​demolition measurements', they refer to observing certain quantum states without destroying them in the process.

If we want to put together a functioning quantum computer, not having it break down every second while calculations are made would obviously be helpful. Now, scientists have described a new technique for recording quantum non-demolition measurements that shows a lot of promise.

In this case, the research involved mechanical quantum systems – objects that are relatively large in quantum computing terms, but exceedingly tiny for us. They use mechanical motion (such as vibration) to handle the necessary quantum magic, and they can be combined with other quantum systems too.

For the purposes of this study, the team put together a thin strip of high-​quality sapphire, just under half a millimeter thick. A thin piezoelectrical transducer was used to excite acoustic waves, moving energy units such as phonons which can, in theory, be put through quantum computing processes. Technically, this device is known as an acoustic resonator.

That was the first part of the setup. To do the measuring, the acoustic resonator was coupled with a superconducting qubit – those basic quantum computer building blocks that can simultaneously hold both a 1 and a 0 value, and upon which companies such as Google and IBM have already built rudimentary quantum computers.

By making the status of the superconducting qubit dependent on the number of phonons in the acoustic resonator, the scientists could read that number of phonons without actually interacting with them or transferring any energy.

They describe it as similar to playing a theremin, the strange musical instrument that doesn't need to be touched to produce sound.

By interfacing mechanical resonators with superconducting circuits, circuit quantum acoustodynamics can make a variety of important tools available for manipulating and measuring motional quantum states.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41567-022-01591-2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday

Rocket engine exhaust pollution extends high into Earth's atmosphere

Reusable space technology has led to a rise in space transportation at a lower cost, as popularized by commercial spaceflights of companies like SpaceX and Virgin Galactic. What is poorly understood, however, is rockets' propulsion emissions creating significant heating and compositional changes in the atmosphere.

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'Night-time solar' technology can now deliver power in the dark

UNSW researchers have made a major breakthrough in renewable energy technology by producing electricity from so-called "night-time" solar power.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday

For large bone injuries, it's Sonic hedgehog to the rescue

A  Stem Cell study in npj Regenerative Medicine presents intriguing evidence that large bone injuries might trigger a repair strategy in adults that recapitulates elements of skeletal formation in utero. Key to this repair strategy is a gene with a fittingly heroic name: Sonic hedgehog.

In the study, researchers took a close look at how mice are able to regrow large sections of missing rib—an ability they share with humans, and one of the most impressive examples of bone regeneration in mammals.

To their surprise, the scientists observed an increase in the activity of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which plays an important role in skeletal formation in embryos, but hasn't previously been linked to injury repair in adults.

In these experiments, Shh appeared to play a necessary role in healing the central region of large sections of missing ribs, but not in closing small-scale fractures.

This evidence suggests that large-scale bone regeneration requires the redeployment of an embryonic developmental program involving Shh, whereas small injuries heal through a distinct repair program that does not mirror development.

A murine model of large-scale bone regeneration reveals a selective requirement for Sonic Hedgehog, npj Regenerative Medicine (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41536-022-00225-8.

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-05-large-bone-injuries-sonic-he...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday

Ehsan Nowroozi et al, Real or virtual: a video conferencing background manipulation-detection system. arXiv:2204.11853v1 [cs.CV]. arxiv.org/abs/2204.11853

Machine learning techniques for image forensics in adversarial setting. Ph.D. Thesis (2020). theses.eurasip.org/theses/859/ … for-image-forensics/

Ehsan Nowroozi et al, A survey of machine learning techniques in adversarial image forensics. arXiv:2010.09680v1 [cs.CR], arxiv.org/abs/2010.09680

Shijing He, Yaxiong Lei, The privacy protection effectiveness of the video conference platforms' virtual background and the privacy concerns from the end-users. arXiv:2110.12493v1 [cs.HC], arxiv.org/abs/2110.12493

Jan Malte Hilgefort et al, Spying through Virtual Backgrounds of Video Calls, Proceedings of the 14th ACM Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Security (2021). DOI: 10.1145/3474369.3486870

Information Leakage in Encrypted IP Video Traffic. Proceedings of the IEEE Global Communications (GLOBECOM)(2015).

Mauro Barni et al, CNN Detection of GAN-Generated Face Images based on Cross-Band Co-occurrences Analysis, 2020 IEEE International Workshop on Information Forensics and Security (WIFS) (2021). DOI: 10.1109/WIFS49906.2020.9360905

https://techxplore.com/news/2022-05-strategy-discern-real-virtual-v...

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