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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 15 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

         The Reach of Scientific Research From Labs to Laymen

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

“Science is not a subject you studied in school. It’s life. We 're brought into existence by it!"

 Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......306

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  their children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

 A+. sci-com-what-makes-a-story-news-worthy-in-science

 B+. is-a-perfect-language-important-in-writing-science-stories

C+. sci-com-how-much-entertainment-is-too-much-while-communicating-sc

D+. sci-com-why-can-t-everybody-understand-science-in-the-same-way

E+. how-to-successfully-negotiate-the-science-communication-maze

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find scientific research  reports posted on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

You cannot prove all the scientific theories wrong!

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday. 1 Reply

Q: What are the potential consequences if scientific theories were proven to be incorrect and our perception of reality was solely based on our own minds?Krishna: All of the scientific theories? Not…Continue

The consequences of global light pollution

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday. 1 Reply

Our ancestors could look up and see the Milky Way—our galaxy—as a large band of white light stretching across the sky. Because of light pollution, that's no longer the case. Most of the present…Continue

Chirality: Magnetic effects at the origin of life?

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday. 1 Reply

Magnetic effects at the origin of life? It's the spin that makes the differenceBiomolecules such as amino acids and sugars occur in two mirror-image forms—in all living organisms, however, only one…Continue

Single antivenom for several lethal snake toxins developed by researchers

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday. 1 Reply

Research scientists have developed an antibody that can block the effects of lethal toxins in the venoms of a wide variety of snakes found throughout Africa, Asia and Australia.The antibody, which…Continue

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You need to be a member of Science Simplified! to add comments!

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday

Decimal point is older than thought
The decimal point was invented by Italian merchant and astronomer Giovanni Bianchini some 150 years before what was considered to be its first appearance. “I remember running up and down the hallways of the dorm with my computer trying to find anybody who was awake, shouting ‘look at this, this guy is doing decimal points in the 1440s!’” recalls historian Glen Van Brummelen, who discovered Bianchini’s number “with a dot in the middle” while teaching at a maths camp for kids. Bianchini’s training in economics might have given him a perspective different to that of his astronomer peers — who would have exclusively been using the sexagesimal (base 60) system — and his approach was perhaps too revolutionary to catch on until much later.

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-024-00473-2?utm_source=Live+...

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0315086024000016...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday

Electrons with the 'wrong' spin are filtered out
Using scanning tunneling microscopy, the researchers were also able to solve another mystery, as they reported in the journal Small in November 2023. Electron transport—i.e. electric current—also depends on the combination of molecular handedness and magnetization of the surface.

Depending on the handedness of the bound molecule, electrons with one direction of spin preferentially flow—or "tunnel"—through the molecule, meaning that electrons with the "wrong" spin are filtered out. This chirality-induced spin selectivity had already been observed in earlier studies, but it remained unclear whether an ensemble of molecules is necessary for this or whether individual molecules also exhibit this effect.
The researchers think that these findings eventually cannot fully answer the question of the chirality of life.
However, they can imagine that in certain surface-catalyzed chemical reactions—such as those that could have taken place in the chemical "primordial soup" on the early Earth—a certain combination of electric and magnetic fields could have led to a steady accumulation of one form or another of the various biomolecules—and thus ultimately to the handedness of life.

Mohammad Reza Safari et al, Enantioselective Adsorption on Magnetic Surfaces, Advanced Materials (2023). DOI: 10.1002/adma.202308666

Part 3

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday

Mirror images prefer opposing magnetic fields: And this is indeed the case, as a team of researchers reported in the journal Advanced Materials.

--

The team coated a (non-magnetic) copper surface with small, ultra-thin "islands" of magnetic cobalt and determined the direction of the magnetic field in these using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy; as mentioned before, this can run in two different directions perpendicular to the metal surface: North up or South up. They then deposited spiral-shaped chiral molecules—a 1:1 mixture of left- and right-handed heptahelicene molecules—onto these cobalt islands in ultrahigh vacuum.

Then they "simply" counted the number of right- and left-handed helicene molecules on the differently magnetized cobalt islands, almost 800 molecules in total, again using scanning tunneling microscopy. And lo and behold: Depending on the direction of magnetic field, one or the other form of the helicene spirals had settled preferentially.

Moreover, the experiments showed that the selection—the preference for one or the other enantiomer—not only occurs during the binding on the cobalt islands, but already beforehand.

Before the molecules take up their final (preferred) position on one of the cobalt islands, they migrate long distances across the copper surface in a significantly weaker bound precursor state in "search" for an ideal position. They are only bound to the surface by so-called van der Waals forces. These are merely caused by fluctuations in the electronic shell of atoms and molecules and are therefore relatively weak. The fact that even these are influenced by magnetism, i.e. the direction of rotation (spin) of the electrons, was not known thus far.

Part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday

Magnetic effects at the origin of life? It's the spin that makes the difference

Biomolecules such as amino acids and sugars occur in two mirror-image forms—in all living organisms, however, only one is ever found. Why this is the case is still unclear. Researchers  have now found evidence that the interplay between electric and magnetic fields could be at the origin of this phenomenon.

The so-called homochirality of life—the fact that all biomolecules in living organisms only ever occur in one of two mirror-image forms—has puzzled a number of scientific luminaries, from the discoverer of molecular chirality, Louis Pasteur, to William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and Nobel Prize winner Pierre Curie. A conclusive explanation is still lacking, as both forms have, for instance, the same chemical stability and do not differ from each other in their physicochemical properties. The hypothesis, however, that the interplay between electric and magnetic fields could explain the preference for one or the other mirror-image form of a molecule—so-called enantiomers—emerged early on.

It was only a few years ago, though, that the first indirect evidence emerged that the various combinations of these force fields can indeed "distinguish" between the two mirror images of a molecule. This was achieved by studying the interaction of chiral molecules with metallic surfaces that exhibit a strong electric field over short distances.
The surfaces of magnetic metals such as iron, cobalt or nickel thus allow electric and magnetic fields to be combined in various ways—the direction of magnetization is simply reversed, from "North up—South down" to "South up—North down."

If the interplay between magnetism and electric fields actually triggers "enantioselective" effects, then the strength of the interaction between chiral molecules and magnetic surfaces should also differ, for example—depending on whether a right-handed or left-handed molecule "settles" on the surface.
Part 1
Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 20, 2024 at 10:55am

The rotation process fails in about 1 in 500 human births, resulting in a displacement of the bowel known as intestinal malrotation. This malrotation can lead to severe complications, such as bowel obstructions from the intestine looping around itself, requiring surgery in early infancy.
Researchers zeroed in on atrazine as a potential cause after it had been discovered that the herbicide dramatically increased the frequency of intestinal rotation in the wrong direction in lab experiments on frogs.
Atrazine is one of the most widely used agricultural herbicides in several countries, although it is banned in some now.

Exposure to atrazine under laboratory conditions caused a metabolic imbalance in frog embryos that prevented cells from properly dividing, growing, or rearranging themselves, which disrupted several cellular processes in the gut. It became harder for the tissues to stretch normally, which made the gut tube shorter.

"The resultant decreased length of the gut tube consequently prevents the crucial hairpin loop of the intestine from achieving its normal anatomical position, compelling the intestine to coil in a reversed orientation," the study authors write.

According to the team, these gut development issues seem to stem from the fact that atrazine throws the body's redox reactions off balance. Imbalances between a cell's oxidants and antioxidants can play a role in diseases. Treating the frogs with antioxidants before they were exposed to atrazine prevented their guts from twisting the wrong way.

It's important to note that the frog embryos were exposed to 1,000 times the levels normally found in the environment, and these results don't prove that exposure to atrazine causes malrotation in humans.

That said, the findings emphasize the importance of metabolic pathways in gut development and highlight possible causes of intestinal malrotation, though there's a lot more to learn.

https://journals.biologists.com/dev/article/151/4/dev202020/343079/...

Part 2

**

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 20, 2024 at 10:48am

Some Babies Are Born With Twisted Insides: here is the reason

Scientists have identified a possible cause for intestinal malrotation; a common but poorly understood condition present at birth in which the gut doesn't rotate properly during development.

Researchers found that exposure to the herbicide atrazine can disrupt gut rotation development in frog embryos, whose guts develop similarly to humans.

Because frog embryos develop in only a few days and are highly experimentally accessible, they allow us to quickly test new hypotheses about how and why development goes awry during malrotation.

During the development of the digestive system, the gut tube of vertebrates grows a lot longer. This extra length fits inside the body's relatively small space because of a process called intestinal rotation, that winds the 'tube' tightly into a compact coil.
In humans this rotation is thought to result from a revolution in the embryonic intestinal tract, though the precise mechanism remains unknown.
As vertebrates, frogs and humans share a common ancestor and have many similar anatomical features, including an intestine that rotates in a counter-clockwise direction.
part 1
Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 20, 2024 at 9:30am

They then used X-ray crystallography to investigate how certain drugs, including one published in Nature by the UIC/Harvard collaboration in 2021, circumvent this common form of bacterial resistance.

By determining the actual structure of antibiotics interacting with two types of drug-resistant ribosomes, the researchers saw what could not have been predicted by the available structural data or by computer modeling.

Cresomycin, the new antibiotic, is synthetic. It's preorganized to avoid the methyl-group interference and attach strongly to ribosomes, disrupting their function. This process involves locking the drug into a shape that is pre-optimized to bind to the ribosome, which helps it get around bacterial defenses.

It simply binds to the ribosomes and acts as if it doesn't care whether there was this methylation or not. It overcomes several of the most common types of drug resistance easily.

In animal experiments conducted at Harvard, the drug protected against infections with multidrug-resistant strains of common disease drivers including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on these promising results, the next step is to assess the effectiveness and safety of cresomycin in humans.

But even at this early stage, the process demonstrates the critical role that structural biology plays in designing the next generation of antibiotics and other life-saving medicines.

Elena V. Aleksandrova et al, Structural basis of Cfr-mediated antimicrobial resistance and mechanisms to evade it, Nature Chemical Biology (2024). DOI: 10.1038/s41589-023-01525-w

Part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 20, 2024 at 9:27am

The antibiotic that evades bacterial resistance

Scientists have developed an antibiotic that could give medicine a new weapon to fight drug-resistant bacteria and the diseases they cause.

The antibiotic, cresomycin, described in Science, effectively suppresses pathogenic bacteria that have become resistant to many commonly prescribed antimicrobial drugs.

In developing the new antibiotic, the researchers focused on how many antibiotics interact with a common cellular target—the ribosome—and how drug-resistant bacteria modify their ribosomes to defend themselves.

More than half of all antibiotics inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria by interfering with their protein biosynthesis—a complex process catalyzed by the ribosome, which is akin to a 3D printer that makes all the proteins in a cell. Antibiotics bind to bacterial ribosomes and disrupt this protein-manufacturing process, causing bacterial invaders to die.

But many bacterial species evolved simple defenses against this attack. In one defense, they interfere with antibiotic activity by adding a single methyl group of one carbon and three hydrogen atoms to their ribosomes. Scientists speculated that this defense was simply bacteria physically blocking the site where drugs bind to the ribosome, like putting a push pin on a chair.

But the researchers found a more complicated story, as they described in a paper published last month in Nature Chemical Biology.

By using a method called X-ray crystallography to visualize drug-resistant ribosomes with nearly atomic precision, they discovered two defensive tactics. The methyl group, they found, physically blocks the binding site, but it also changes the shape of the ribosome's inner "guts," further disrupting antibiotic activity.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 20, 2024 at 9:15am

Study discovers link between high levels of niacin and heart disease

Clinic researchers have identified a new pathway that contributes to cardiovascular disease associated with high levels of niacin, a common B vitamin previously recommended to lower cholesterol.

The researchers discovered a link between 4PY, a breakdown product from excess niacin, and heart disease. Higher circulating levels of 4PY were strongly associated with development of heart attack, stroke and other adverse cardiac events in large-scale clinical studies. The researchers also showed in preclinical studies that 4PY directly triggers vascular inflammation which damages blood vessels and can lead to atherosclerosis over time.

The study, published in Nature Medicine, also details genetic links between 4PY and vascular inflammation. The findings provide a foundation for potential new interventions and therapeutics to reduce or prevent that inflammation.

What's exciting about these results is that this pathway appears to be a previously unrecognized yet significant contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. What's more, we can measure it, meaning there is potential for diagnostic testing. These insights set the stage for developing new approaches to counteract the effects of this pathway.

 Stanley Hazen, A terminal metabolite of niacin promotes vascular inflammation and contributes to cardiovascular disease risk, Nature Medicine (2024). DOI: 10.1038/s41591-023-02793-8www.nature.com/articles/s41591-023-02793-8

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on February 19, 2024 at 10:37am
Don’t let ‘FDA-approved’ or ‘patented’ in ads give you a false sense of security

"FDA approved"  means a product's benefits have been found to outweigh its risks for a specific purpose – not that it's of high quality or low risk in general.

But  advertisers throw these terms around in confusing ways.
Researchers, for instance, found an ad for a probiotic supplement stating, "The proof is in the patent"; an ad for an earwax removal product stating its "patented formula is safe, effective, and clinically proven"; and an ad for a headache remedy that made the words "FDA approved" a bold visual focal point.
And these terms appear most often in ads for things you eat or rub onto your skin, such as supplements, insecticides, toothpaste and lotions. That's probably no coincidence. Products like this aren't tightly regulated, yet consumers want to know they're safe. It seems likely that advertisers are name-dropping the government to make people think just that.

One danger is clear: Ads with vague references to government authorities could dupe consumers into thinking products are safer or more effective than they actually are. In fact, there's some evidence this is already happening.

Another risk is that this creates perverse incentives for business. Companies could chose to forgo actual innovation, focusing instead on securing dubious patents or regulatory nods to keep up in the advertising race.

These practices could distort competition, burden government agencies with frivolous patent applications and deter new entrants from competing in markets where they can't employ similar advertising tactics.

 

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