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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 9 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 845 articles posted here in this group. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......185

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  their children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

 A+. sci-com-what-makes-a-story-news-worthy-in-science

 B+. is-a-perfect-language-important-in-writing-science-stories

C+. https://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum/topics/sci-com-how-much-entertainment-is-too-much-while-communicating-sc

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

Struggling with positive thinking? Research shows grumpy moods can actually be useful

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 9 hours ago. 1 Reply

Struggling with positive thinking? Research shows grumpy moods can actually be useful!As psychiatry, which uses medical and biological methods to treat mental disorders, …Continue

How do scientists stimulate their minds?

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa 13 hours ago. 1 Reply

Q: How do scientists stimulate their minds?Krishna: If you have to stimulate your mind over and over again, you cannot be a good scientist!A scientific mind breathes, eats, sleeps, drinks, reads,…Continue

Artificial photosynthesis can produce food without sunshine!

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Friday. 1 Reply

You must have studied in your school textbooks that photosynthesis by plants is necessary for food production. Now scientists are rewriting this story!Photosynthesis has evolved in plants for…Continue

Another step toward synthetic cells

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday. 1 Reply

Building functional synthetic cells from the bottom-up is an ongoing effort of scientists around the globe. Their use in studying cellular mechanisms in a highly controlled and pre-defined setting…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 12, 2022 at 10:52am

Reductions in PFAS levels from blood or plasma donations may be because PFAS are bound to proteins primarily found in the serum; many other organic pollutants are bound to fats.

The finding that plasma was more effective than blood donation might be because firefighters in the plasma donation group donated blood every six weeks, whereas those in the blood donation group donated every 12 weeks.

In addition, each plasma donation can amount to as much as 800mL compared with 470mL for whole blood.

Plasma PFAS concentrations are also about two times higher than blood PFAS concentrations, which could make plasma donation more efficient at reducing the body burden of PFAS chemicals.

This study provides the first avenue for affected individuals to remove PFAS from their bodies and redress the effects of their PFAS exposure.

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2790905

https://theconversation.com/new-evidence-shows-blood-or-plasma-dona...

part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 12, 2022 at 10:50am

New evidence shows blood or plasma donations can reduce the PFAS ‘forever chemicals’ in our bodies

You might have heard of PFAS, a synthetic chemical found in certain legacy firefighting foams, non-stick pans, carpets, clothes and stain- or water-resistant materials and paints.

PFAS stands for “per- and poly-fluorinated alkyl substances”. These molecules, made up of chains of carbon and fluorine atoms, are nicknamed “forever chemicals” because they don’t degrade in our bodies.

There is global concern about PFAS because they have been used widely, are persistent in the environment and accumulate in our bodies over time.

There was no way to reduce the amount of PFAS found in the body – until now.

But a new randomised clinical trial, published in the journal JAMA Network Open, has found regularly donating blood or plasma can reduce blood PFAS levels.

The trial involved 285 Fire Rescue Victoria staff and contractors with elevated levels of PFOS, a common detected type of PFAS used in some firefighting foams.

They were randomly allocated to donate plasma every six weeks, to donate whole blood every 12 weeks, or to make no donations (the control group) for 12 months.

Their PFAS levels were measured at four intervals: at recruitment, the start of the trial, after 12 months of following their treatment plan, and again three months later to test if the results were sustained.

Both blood and plasma donation resulted in significantly lower PFAS chemicals than the control group, and these differences were maintained three months later.

Plasma donation was most effective, resulting in a roughly 30% decrease in average blood serum PFAS concentrations over the 12-month trial period.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 12, 2022 at 9:19am

Decoy particles trick coronavirus as it evolves

They might look like cells and act like cells. But a new potential COVID-19 treatment is actually a cleverly disguised trickster, which attracts viruses and binds them, rendering them inactive.

As the ever-evolving SARS-CoV-2 virus begins to evade once promising treatments, such as monoclonal antibody therapies, researchers have become more interested in these "decoy" nanoparticles. Mimicking regular cells, decoy nanoparticles soak up  like a sponge, inhibiting them from infecting the rest of the body.

In a new study, Northwestern University  set out to elucidate the design rules needed make decoy nanoparticles effective and resistant to viral escape. After designing and testing various iterations, the researchers identified a broad set of decoys—all manufacturable using different methods—that were incredibly effective against the original virus as well as mutant variants.

In fact, decoy nanoparticles were up to 50 times more effective at inhibiting naturally occurring viral mutants, compared to traditional, protein-based inhibitor drugs. When tested against a viral mutant designed to resist such treatments, decoy nanoparticles were up to 1,500 times more effective at inhibiting infection.

Although much more research and clinical evaluations are needed, the researchers believe decoy nanoparticle infusions someday could potentially be used to treat patients with severe or prolonged viral infections.

Taylor F. Gunnels et al, Elucidating Design Principles for Engineering Cell‐Derived Vesicles to Inhibit SARS‐CoV‐2 Infection, Small (2022). DOI: 10.1002/smll.202200125

https://phys.org/news/2022-04-decoy-particles-coronavirus-evolves.h...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 12, 2022 at 8:50am

Climatic variability might not drive evolutionary change as much as previously thought, study finds

A new study combining climate data with fossil records of large mammals that lived across Africa during the last 4 million years casts doubt on a long-standing hypothesis that repeated shifts in climate acted as major drivers of evolutionary change in mammals, including human ancestors.

Published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the study yields an African continent-wide synthesis of environmental variability during the Plio-Pleistocene, a period in Earth's history that spans roughly the last 5 million years and includes the last ice age about 20,000 years ago.

The study finds that environmental variability during that time mirrors changes in the Earth's orbit and orientation with respect to the sun, as predicted by a natural phenomenon known as Milankovic cycles. These cycles expose our planet to varying intensity of solar radiation, resulting in well-documented, cyclical effects on Earth's climate at various frequencies.

The researchers observed a long-term trend of increasing environmental variability across Africa attributable to variations in global ice volume and ocean temperature. The results did not, however, yield a significant correlation between environmental variation and rates of species origination or extinction, suggesting that environmental variability and species turnover may not be closely related.

Plio-Pleistocene environmental variability in Africa and its implications for mammalian evolution, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2022). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107393119.

https://phys.org/news/2022-04-climatic-variability-evolutionary-pre...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 10, 2022 at 9:55am

What Is Life? (featuring Prof. Brian Cox)

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 10, 2022 at 9:25am

The Problem with Deep Space Travel

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 9, 2022 at 8:20am

Old skin cells reprogrammed to regain youthful function

Research  has developed a method to "time jump" human skin cells by 30 years, turning back the aging clock for cells without losing their specialized function. Work by researchers in the  Epigenetics research program has been able to partly restore the function of older cells, as well as rejuvenating the molecular measures of biological age. The research is published recently in the journal eLife, and while this topic is still at an early stage of exploration, it could revolutionize regenerative medicine.

As we age, our cells' ability to function declines and the  accumulates marks of aging. Regenerative biology aims to repair or replace cells including old ones. One of the most important tools in regenerative biology is our ability to create "induced" stem cells. The process is a result of several steps, each erasing some of the marks that make cells specialized. In theory, these stem cells have the potential to become any cell type, but scientists aren't yet able to reliably recreate the conditions to re-differentiate stem cells into all cell types.

The new method, based on the Nobel Prize-winning technique scientists use to make stem cells, overcomes the problem of entirely erasing cell identity by halting reprogramming part of the way through the process. This allowed researchers to find the precise balance between reprogramming cells, making them biologically younger, while still being able to regain their specialized cell function.

Multi-omic rejuvenation of human cells by maturation phase transient reprogramming, eLife, 2022. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.71624

https://phys.org/news/2022-04-skin-cells-reprogrammed-regain-youthf...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 9, 2022 at 8:14am

Microplastics found in lung tissue from live human beings for the first time

A team of researchers has identified minute particles of plastic in lung tissue removed from live human patients, marking the first time such materials have been observed in living human patients. The group has published a paper describing their findings in the journal Science of the Total Environment.

Prior studies have shown that plastics of all sizes have been winding up in places all across the planet. More recently, studies have found tiny bits of plastics in animals and in humans. Such particles have been found in the spleen, kidneys and liver of both live and deceased humans. And just last month a team in the Netherlands reported finding microplastics in the bloodstream of a live human patient. In this new effort, the researchers report having found microplastics in lung tissue taken from live patients in a hospital.

Suspecting that micro-sized bits of plastic might be inhaled by some people, the researchers worked with surgical teams at Castle Hill Hospital and their patients. The patients were undergoing surgery for treatment of various lung ailments and agreed to allow tissue removed from their lungs during surgery to be examined by the research team. Under such an arrangement, the research team was able to collect 13 samples, each of which went under the microscope. They found bits of plastic in 11 of them.

In studying the bits of plastic, the researchers found 12 different kinds, including those used in common household applications, such as clothing, packaging and bottles. But most surprising was where the plastic bits were found. In addition to the upper part of the lungs, where such particles would be expected to collect, the team found them in the lower regions. This was surprising because the airways in such parts of the lungs are much smaller, making it much more difficult for particles to reach them. The researchers were also surprised to find higher levels of the plastics in male patients as opposed to female patients.

Lauren C. Jenner et al, Detection of microplastics in human lung tissue using μFTIR spectroscopy, Science of The Total Environment (2022). DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.154907

https://phys.org/news/2022-04-microplastics-lung-tissue-human.html?...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 8, 2022 at 10:56am

Researchers develop injectable microtissue to preserve muscle function in rats with severed sciatic nerves

Researchers engineered the first injectable microtissue containing motor and sensory neurons encased in protective tissue, called tissue engineered neuromuscular interfaces (TE-NMIs). The TE-NMI neurons provide a source of axons to muscles in rats who suffered nerve injuries, and “babysit” the muscles to prevent degeneration and loss of function, while the damaged nerve regrows, according to the researchers.

The TE-NMIs are comprised of nerve cells encapsulated in a protective hydrogel, and the entire microenvironment is injected in close proximity to muscles. This “ship in a bottle” method protects the neurons and increases the likelihood that a greater quantity of axons will connect with the muscle and maintain regenerative pathways.

Researchers severed the sciatic nerve in rats, and injected them with either a TE-NMI or a microtissue without any neurons. In the group that received TE-NMIs, researchers were able to electrically stimulate the nerve stump being “babysat” by the TE-NMI and record a muscle response up to five months after the tissue was implanted. No muscle response was detected in the control group.

Justin C. Burrell, Suradip Das, Franco A. Laimo, Kritika S. Katiyar, Kevin D. Browne, Robert B. Shultz, Vishal J. Tien, Phuong T. Vu, Dmitriy Petrov, Zarina S. Ali, Joseph M. Rosen, D. Kacy Cullen. Engineered neuronal microtissue provides exogenous axons for delayed nerve fusion and rapid neuromuscular recovery in ratsBioactive Materials, 2022; 18: 339 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioactmat.2022.03.018

https://researchnews.cc/news/12532/Penn-researchers-develop-injecta...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on April 6, 2022 at 9:27am

Scientists develop a recyclable pollen-based paper for repeated printing and 'unprinting'

Scientists  have developed a pollen-based "paper" that, after being printed on, can be "erased" and reused multiple times without any damage to the paper.

In a research paper published online in Advanced Materials on 5 April, the NTU Singapore scientists demonstrated how high-resolution color images could be printed on the non-allergenic  paper with a laser printer, and then "unprinted"—by completely removing the toner without damaging the paper—with an alkaline solution. They demonstrated that this process could be repeated up to at least eight times.

This innovative, printer-ready pollen paper could become an eco-friendly alternative to conventional paper, which is made via a multi-step process with a significant negative environmental impact.

It could also help to reduce the carbon emissions and energy usage associated with conventional paper recycling, which involves repulping, de-toning (removal of printer toner) and reconstruction.

Ze Zhao et al, Recyclable and Reusable Natural Plant‐Based Paper for Repeated Digital Printing and Unprinting, Advanced Materials (2022). DOI: 10.1002/adma.202109367

https://techxplore.com/news/2022-04-scientists-recyclable-pollen-ba...

 

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