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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 20 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 824 articles posted here in this group. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......185

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  their children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

 A+. sci-com-what-makes-a-story-news-worthy-in-science

 B+. is-a-perfect-language-important-in-writing-science-stories

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

Monkeypox: what you need to know

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday. 1 Reply

Four new cases of monkeypox have been reported in the UK, bringing the total number of confirmed…Continue

Researchers use galaxy as a 'cosmic telescope' to study heart of the young universe

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday. 1 Reply

They say where there is a will, there is  a way. Scientists use this will to find a way to do things that seem impossible in the ordinary world. In a scientific world, nothing is impossible!A unique…Continue

You can hear the sounds of aurora borealis even if you can't see it!

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday. 1 Reply

You can hear the sounds of aurora borealis even if you can't see it!Dr.…Continue

Extraordinary claims need genuine evidence! - part 1

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday. 1 Reply

Some people are sending me  stories of extraordinary claims and asking me to verify the truth. That is what we are here for. Okay let me post some of the stories   and the actual facts now. Story no.…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on March 7, 2022 at 9:07am

SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals could have different variants hidden in different parts of the body

People suffering from COVID-19 could have several different SARS-CoV-2 variants hidden away from the immune system in different parts of the body, finds new research published in Nature Communications by an international research team. The study's authors say that this may make complete clearance of the virus from the body of an infected person, by their own antibodies, or by therapeutic antibody treatments, much more difficult.

In new research, comprising two studies published in parallel in Nature Communications, an international team led by Professor Imre Berger at the University of Bristol and Professor Joachim Spatz at the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg , both Directors of the Max Planck Bristol Centre of Minimal Biology, show how the virus can evolve distinctly in different cell types, and adapt its immunity, in the same infected host.

The team sought to investigate the function of a tailor-made pocket in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the infection cycle of the virus. The pocket, discovered by the Bristol team in an earlier breakthrough, played an essential role in viral infectivity.

These results showed that one can have several different virus variants in one's body. Some of these variants may use kidney or spleen cells as their niche to hide, while the body is busy defending against the dominant virus type. This could make it difficult for the infected patients to get rid of SARS-CoV-2 entirely.

Using these artificial virions, they were able to study the exact mechanism of the pocket in viral infection. They demonstrated that upon binding of a fatty acid, the spike protein decorating the virions changed their shape. This switching 'shape' mechanism effectively cloaks the virus from the immune system. "By 'ducking down' of the spike protein upon binding of inflammatory fatty acids, the virus becomes less visible to the immune system. This could be a mechanism to avoid detection by the host and a strong immune response for a longer period of time and increase total infection efficiency.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on March 5, 2022 at 11:52am

Progress through research
Through earlier studies, Shulman's lab team had identified the inhibition of the mitochondrial-associated enzyme glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, which converts glycerol to glucose, as a potential mechanism for metformin action. Now, in the current study, they were able to show through another series of experiments that metformin, as well as the related drugs phenformin and galegine, did in fact inhibit glycerol conversion to glucose both in vitro and in vivo and that they did so through an indirect mechanism by inhibiting complex IV activity.

"Taken together these studies show that metformin does not lower blood glucose by inhibition of complex I activity, but instead it reduces blood glucose through inhibition of complex IV activity which in turn leads to inhibition of glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase activity and reductions in glycerol conversion to glucose" says Shulman.

Why it matters to know
It is not uncommon for drugs to be approved for clinical use despite researchers not understanding how they work, if they are shown to be safe and effective. But Shulman says research on poorly understood medications like metformin allows scientists to develop more beneficial treatments. Taking metformin, for example, can lead to unpleasant side effects such as gastrointestinal distress, leading many patients to stop taking it. Shulman hopes his team's research can lead to the development of diabetes drugs with the safe efficacy of metformin but higher tolerability.

https://medicine.yale.edu/news-article/how-a-widely-used-diabetes-m...

https://researchnews.cc/news/11938/How-a-widely-used-diabetes-medic...

Part 2

**

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on March 5, 2022 at 11:51am

How a widely used diabetes medicine metformin

actually works

Physicians have used the drug metformin to treat type 2 diabetes for more than half a century, but despite its prevalence, researchers have lacked a clear understanding of how it works. Now, Yale researchers have elucidated the mechanism behind metformin and related type 2 diabetes drugs, and debunked a previously held theory on how they work. The team, including senior author Gerald Shulman, MD, Ph.D., George R. Cowgill Professor of Medicine (Endocrinology) and professor of cellular and molecular physiology, and first author Traci LaMoia, a graduate student in Shulman's lab, published their findings in PNAS on March 1.

"Metformin is the most commonly used drug to treat diabetes," says Shulman. "It's important to understand how it works so we can potentially develop even better drugs to treat type 2 diabetes."

Studies in humans have shown that metformin inhibits the process of gluconeogenesis, which is how the liver makes glucose from non-glucose precursors such as amino acids and lactate. How it accomplishes this, however, has been a mystery.

Mitochondria in cells generate energy through the electron transport chain, which consists of four protein complexes that release energy through a series of reactions. Most scientists previously believed that metformin works by inhibiting complex I, the first and largest of the mitochondrial complexes that creates the hydrogen ion gradient. However, Shulman's group has previously demonstrated that metformin only inhibits complex I at much higher pharmacological concentrations than what is typically prescribed.

To further test this hypothesis, the team performed a series of experiments both in liver slices and in mice. Using a complex I inhibitor known as piercidin A, they found that this mechanism failed to reduce liver gluconeogenesis. "Using a very specific inhibitor of complex I, we show that complex I inhibition doesn't reduce blood glucose in both in vitro and in vivo studies," says Shulman.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on March 5, 2022 at 11:37am

Mucus could explain why SARS-CoV-2 doesn't spread easily from surfaces

Early in the pandemic, many people fastidiously disinfected surfaces because laboratory studies predicted that SARS-CoV-2 could be easily transmitted in this way. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Central Science have found a possible explanation for why the predictions didn’t pan out: Sugar-decorated proteins in mucus could bind to the coronavirus on surfaces, keeping it from infecting cells. The findings could also hint at why some people are more vulnerable to COVID-19 than others.

Although experiments have shown that coronaviruses can persist on surfaces for days or weeks, it is now apparent that SARS-CoV-2 is much more likely to infect people through airborne droplets carrying the virus. The surface studies typically used viruses suspended in buffers or growth media, whereas in the real world, SARS-CoV-2 is coated in mucus when someone coughs or sneezes. With this in mind,  researchers wondered if mucus components could explain the discrepancy between the lab predictions and reality. In addition to water, salts, lipids, DNA and other proteins, mucus contains proteins called mucins, which are heavily modified with sugar molecules known as glycans. To infect cells, the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds glycan molecules with sialic acid at their ends on the cell surface. So, the researchers wondered if the coronavirus also recognizes sialic acid-containing glycans in mucins. If the spike protein is already bound to glycans in mucus, perhaps it couldn’t bind to the ones on cells, they reasoned.

For safety reasons, the researchers chose to study a human coronavirus called OC43, which evolved relatively recently from a cow coronavirus and causes mostly mild respiratory infections. The team deposited droplets of the virus in buffer or growth medium supplemented with 0.1–5% mucins, which corresponds to the concentration range of mucins found in nasal mucus and saliva, onto a plastic surface and let the drops dry. Then, they rehydrated the viral residue and measured its ability to infect cells. In comparison to the buffer or growth medium alone, the solutions supplemented with mucins were dramatically less infectious. The team also tested steel, glass and surgical mask surfaces, finding similar results.

The researchers showed that, as the droplets dried, mucins moved to the edge and concentrated there in a coffee-ring effect, bringing the virus with them. This brought mucins and virus particles close together, where they could more easily interact. Cutting off sialic acid glycans from mucins with an enzyme eliminated viral binding and destroyed the glycoproteins’ protective effect. Because SARS-CoV-2, like OC43, binds to sialic acid glycans on cell surfaces, mucins would also likely reduce its infectivity, the researchers suspect. The levels and types of sugar molecules on mucins can vary with diet and certain diseases, which could possibly explain the vulnerability of certain people to COVID-19, they say.

Casia L. Wardzala, Amanda M. Wood, David M. Belnap, Jessica R. Kramer. Mucins Inhibit Coronavirus Infection in a Glycan-Dependent MannerACS Central Science, 2022; DOI: 10.1021/acscentsci.1c01369

https://researchnews.cc/news/11925/Mucus-could-explain-why-SARS-CoV...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on March 5, 2022 at 10:00am

Seaspiracy

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on March 4, 2022 at 11:56am

p53: meet the anticancer protein

The tumour-suppressing protein p53 acts as the guardian of the genome by providing important protection against cancer — when it is active, that is. Many malignant cells exhibit p53 dysfunction, and several clinical trials of agents intended to restore p53 to working order are now underway.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on March 4, 2022 at 11:49am

Putting stem cells on pause

People now are having children later than ever before.

But time is tough on our bodies and our reproductive systems. For instance, as animals age, our stem cells are less effective at renewing our tissues. This is particularly true for germline stem cells, which turn into sperm and eggs.

What if there were a way to pause this process?

Biologists  have published a study on the ability of fruit flies to extend the longevity of their germline stem cells. The paper, released in Nature Communications, describes a process that halts egg production in female flies. The scientists found that nearly every step was put on hold, extending the stem cells' viability. The insights could inform future medical discoveries.

When fruit flies emerge in their adult form into cold, dark conditions, they enter a dormancy called diapause. It's a seasonal response to save energy for reproduction when success is more likely: in warmer times of the year. Diapause can double a fly's lifespan and significantly extend their reproductive period. Flies in diapause eat less, are less active and suspend their reproductive processes; however, they don't actually hibernate.

Scientists have investigated this phenomenon before, but mostly from a behavioral perspective. Female flies under stress will pause oogenesis—the production of egg cells—at a specific stage of egg development. Scientists found this during diapause as well, but it went beyond just this stage. The arrest of oogenesis was much more complete during diapause than under other stressful situations, like when predators were present or protein was scarce. Not only was the arrest more complete, but recovery of reproductive capacity was stronger as well.

If growing egg cells is like installing new software, then the stress response is like pausing the download to take care of an errand. In contrast, diapause is like quitting the installation and restarting the process at a later point.

 Sreesankar Easwaran et al, Enhanced germline stem cell longevity in Drosophila diapause, Nature Communications (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-28347-z

https://phys.org/news/2022-03-stem-cells.html?utm_source=nwletter&a...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on March 4, 2022 at 11:34am

Scientists are 'training' corals to make them tolerate heat stress

A new study  researchers found that corals that underwent a stressful temperature treatment in the laboratory for 90 days were more tolerant to increased water temperatures.

These findings offer coral restoration scientists with a new approach to potentially increase the success rate of planting nursery-raised staghorn coral onto degraded reefs as climate change continues to warm ocean temperatures, resulting in more frequent coral bleaching events. Researchers were able to demonstrate that this temperature treatment can boost the corals' stamina to heat stress.

Allyson DeMerlis et al, Pre-exposure to a variable temperature treatment improves the response of Acropora cervicornis to acute thermal stress, Coral Reefs (2022). DOI: 10.1007/s00338-022-02232-z

https://phys.org/news/2022-03-corals-tolerate-stress.html?utm_sourc...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on March 4, 2022 at 8:42am

Discovery may explain why more females than males get knee osteoarthritis

Knee osteoarthritis is the most common joint problem, affecting an estimated 250 million people worldwide, including 14 per cent of females older than 60 and 10 per cent of males in the same age group.

Female astronauts could avoid knee injuries during space flight — and better tests, prevention and treatments could be developed for knee osteoarthritis in women here on Earth — based on newly published research on the sex differences in knee meniscus tissue.

Knee osteoarthritis is more common in females than in males, but hormones alone are not enough to explain the difference. The new research identifies a genetic difference in the meniscus that makes about 50 per cent of females more vulnerable to developing osteoarthritis than males or other females.

Researchers carried out the experiments in part by simulating low-gravity conditions in space, which mimics the damage that can happen to the meniscus due to lack of exercise.

Some of the genes that were found in the females that responded more to simulated space microgravity were also associated with the development of knee osteoarthritis.

Meniscus is a kind of cartilage in the knee that acts as a load distributor for the body’s full weight. At one time, it was thought to be like the appendix: you wouldn’t miss it if it were gone. But now it’s known that just a small tear in the meniscus — usually caused by a sports injury — increases the risk of osteoarthritis later in life, even if the damaged tissue has been removed.

On the other hand, lack of use can also lead to deconditioning of the meniscus and increase arthritis risk. You’ll notice the short-term effect of deconditioning when you get out of bed in the morning and feel stiff, but then your joints loosen up once you’ve moved around for a while. It’s the same thing that happens to astronauts in space, unless they use specially designed resistance equipment to make up for the lack of weight-bearing exercise in microgravity.

Zhiyao Ma et al, Engineered Human Meniscus in Modeling Sex Differences of Knee Osteoarthritis in Vitro, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology (2022). DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2022.823679

https://researchnews.cc/news/11920/Discovery-may-explain-why-more-f...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on March 3, 2022 at 11:34am

This statistical model provides a basis for accommodating what has previously been a thorn in the side of theorists such as Darwin.

Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection predicts gradual and incremental changes to organisms occurring over very long timespans. But the fossil record  frequently shows very abrupt changes in the sizes, shapes, colors and other features of organisms, and these have been used for at least fifty years to challenge the Darwinian orthodoxy.

--

Many of these abrupt changes occurred around 60-70 million years ago, a period that saw the rise of many different mammal groups from earlier forms. For example, over a 100,000 year period an early small grazing animal (Conacodon entoconus), ancestral to today's modern cows, antelopes, and giraffes, increased in size over 70-fold. More recently, the  (e.g., humpback, blue and sperm whales) have increased over 100-fold in size from a small dolphin-like ancestor in the same amount of time (~ 7 million years) that separates modern humans from their common ancestor with the chimpanzees.

General statistical model shows that macroevolutionary patterns and processes are consistent with Darwinian gradualism, Nature Communications (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-28595-z

https://phys.org/news/2022-03-gradual-evolution-darwinian-theory.ht...

Researchers show in this paper that even these abrupt changes are easily explained as cases of what is known as 'directional selection'—when natural selection strongly pulls a trait in one direction. No special extra-Darwinian mechanisms are required.

 

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