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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 17
Latest Activity: 19 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 452 articles posted here. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs peopel asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......164

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  thier children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

Mushrooms accumulate harmful heavy metals from soil

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Friday. 1 Reply

We eat edible mushrooms. Fine. Mushrooms are  low in calories and fat and cholesterol-free, mushrooms contain a modest amount of fiber and over a dozen minerals and vitamins, including copper,…Continue

Questions people asked me on science and my replies to them - part 165

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Friday. 1 Reply

Q: How can age old cultural,  traditional and religious practices be harmful? They are based on experience and the resultant knowledge!Krishna: Is that so?! A few real stories have been told by…Continue

Causes for dry eyes and remedies for the condition

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday. 1 Reply

Not only sitting before computers for a long time, even smoke and pollution can cause  watery, burning, irritated or red eyes, and most importantly dry eyes.Dry eye is a common condition that happens…Continue

You can leave water out without attracting mosquitoes if you take a few precautions

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jan 15. 1 Reply

We all know that mosquitoes need water to live and propagate. Health authorities generally warn against collecting and storing water in backyards as one measure to protect against mosquito bites and…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 11, 2019 at 11:13am

Researchers find over 40 new species of fish in one lake

There are many thousands of species of fish inhabiting the world's waters. Recently, researchers have uncovered around 40 new species in a lake in Africa. The number is impressive, but the investigators explain how these new varieties came to be.

In a study paper published in NatureTrusted Source, Meier and colleagues say that the body of water they focused on — Lake Mweru, which lies at the border between Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo — houses "a spectacular diversity" of fish, most of which zoologists had never encountered before.

"We found a dazzling variety of ecologically diverse new species — called radiations — that were previously unknown," says Meier.

How did the new species evolve? The researchers explain that most of the species present in the lake are hybrid — meaning that they are the product of interspecies breeding.

Yet this is not as straightforward as it may seem. Members of different species do not typically choose to mate with each other. For interspecies breeding to occur, certain special conditions must be in place, and the females are key in this equation.

When the researchers conducted tests on cichlids in captivity, they noticed that females from one species would only choose to mate with a male from a different species if its scales were of a similar color to that of males of their species.

Additionally, the investigators saw that when visibility was poor, female cichlids were unable to differentiate between males belonging to their species and those belonging to other species, thus making interbreeding more likely.

Meier and colleagues believe that these scenarios took place around 1 million years ago at Lake Mweru's formation.

"To diversify into different species, the cichlid fish needed the ecological opportunity provided by the new habitats of Lake Mweru, formed 1 million years ago.



Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 6, 2019 at 8:44am

Scientists’ brains shrank a bit after an extended stay in Antarctica. The effects of isolation and a monotonous environment may be to blame

Socially isolated and faced with a persistently white polar landscape, a long-term crew of an Antarctic research station saw a portion of their brains shrink during their stay, a small study finds.

“It’s very exciting to see the white desert at the beginning,” says physiologist Alexander Stahn, who began the research while at Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin. “But then it’s always the same.”

The crew of eight scientists and researchers and a cook lived and worked at the German research station Neumayer III for 14 months. Although joined by other scientists during the summer, the crew alone endured the long darkness of the polar winter, when temperatures can plummet as low as –50° Celsius and evacuation is impossible. That social isolation and monotonous environment is the closest thing on Earth to what a space explorer on a long mission may experience, says Stahn, who is interested in researching what effect such travel would have on the brain.

Animal studies have revealed that similar conditions can harm the hippocampus, a brain area crucial for memory and navigation . For example, rats are better at learning when the animals are housed with companions or in an enriched environment than when alone or in a bare cage, Stahn says. But whether this is true for a person’s brain is unknown.

Stahn, now at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and his colleagues used magnetic resonance imaging to capture views of the team members’ brains before their polar stay and after their return. On average, an area of the hippocampus in the crew’s brains shrank by 7 percent over the course of the expedition, compared with healthy people matched for age and gender who didn’t stay at the station, the researchers report online December 4 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

But there are good reasons to believe that this change is reversible, Stahn says. While the hippocampus is highly vulnerable to stressors like isolation, he says, it is also very responsive to stimulation that comes from a life filled with social interactions and a variety of landscapes to explore.

A.C. Stahn et al. Brain changes in response to long Antarctic expeditionsNew England Journal of Medicine. Published online December 4, 2019. doi:10.1056/NEJMc1904905.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 6, 2019 at 7:40am

Biomimicry - the process of mimicing nature for our benefit. Plants serve as the inspiration for new energy technologies — and more efficient agriculture. So scientists are now looking to hack photosynthesis for a greener planet.

Photosynthesis comes as naturally to plants as breathing does to people. This process converts the simple ingredients of carbon dioxide, water and sunlight into energy. Photosynthesis allows plants to grow. In turn, we rely on photosynthesis as the foundation for our life on Earth.  

When sunlight touches the leaves of a plant it does more. It powers a chemical reaction that converts one type of energy into another. Those plant leaves contain plenty of water. That water is made of oxygen atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms. The sun’s energy can excite electrons inside the water molecule enough that the bonds split.

This triggers a reaction “that takes the oxygen away from the water. And that becomes the oxygen in the air that we all breathe. Meanwhile, Hydrogen from the water gets smushed together with the carbon dioxide [in air], and that makes sugar. People and all other animals use this sugar — glucose — as an energy source from food. Plants become the food that our bodies can convert into energy. Essentially, photosynthesis is the reason we can exist.

Artificial photosynthesis: 

Scientists have already begun copying, or mimicking, photosynthesis. Their artificial processes also use light to split oxygen and hydrogen — for energy. The dream is to eventually replace fossil fuels. If people could make energy from sun, air and water — as plants do — it would cut down on planet-warming releases of carbon dioxide. It also could create a huge new source of renewable energy.

Many researchers look to solar fuels — fuels made from sunlight — as “green” replacements for today’s carbon-based fossil fuels. These include oil, gas and coal.

Scientists around the world are experimenting with devices — think of them as artificial leaves.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 3, 2019 at 6:48am

We heard the consequences of AGW ( human-caused change of global warming). Like wildfires, hurricanes and floods that forced thousands of people to evacuate, damage property, and erase tangible reminders of our past.

Like more ubiquitous, but less publicized, are the millions of people who are exposed to heat waves, long-term droughts, rising sea levels, and eroding coastlines, forcing them to move elsewhere or spend large sums of money building communities that are habitable.

Each of these responses represent a challenge to our mental health. For instance, people exposed to life-threatening extreme weather events are more likely to experience post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety.

People exposed to prolonged heat waves are more likely to make poor decisions that place them at risk for death or severe injury. People exposed to long-term drought are more likely to experience depression, interpersonal violence and thoughts of suicide. People exposed to sea level rise and coastal erosion are more likely to experience anxiety and interpersonal conflict with others in their community.

These mental health challenges are perhaps the most overlooked consequences of climate change and need a thorough understanding to deal with them.

Increasing temperatures and heatwaves, the spread of emerging infectious illnesses, and the widespread concerns about food security in drought-plagued regions of the world all threaten our physical health.

Environmental changes that threaten our livelihoods, access to food, and habitability of our communities lead to widespread unemployment and poverty, civil conflict, and dislocation.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 24, 2019 at 9:10am

Chinese scientists programme stem cells to ‘fight and destroy’ cancer

  • Team from Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health says technique was successful in treatment of mice
  • Technique represents another step forward in field of immune therapy, researchers say

Chinese scientists claim to have made a major step towards a breakthrough in cancer treatment by programming stem cells to “seek and destroy” the disease.

Professor Wang Jinyong and a team from the Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, say that the technique was successfully used to treat mice with cancer of the thymus, an organ central to the body’s immune system.

According to a paper published last week in the peer-reviewed scientific journal Cell Research, the team used stem cells to create infant immune cells that would later develop into T cells, which are produced in the thymus and play a central role in the body’s immune response.

After a period of time, the tumours disappeared. And because the new T cells had memory, the mice were immune from this type of cancer for life, the report said.

In a statement on the academy’s website, the team said the method could lead to a breakthrough in cancer treatment.

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http://www.sci-news.com/medicine/laser-ultrasound-imaging-07945.html

Novel Laser Ultrasound Technique Doesn’t Require Contact with Patient’s Body

The noncontact laser ultrasound technique, developed by a team of MIT engineers, leverages an eye- and skin-safe laser system to remotely image the inside of a patient: when trained on a patient’s skin, one laser remotely generates sound waves that bounce through the body; a second laser remotely detects the reflected waves, which researchers then translate into an image similar to conventional ultrasound.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 24, 2019 at 8:57am

Infectious bacteria communicate to avoid antibiotics

A bacterial infection is not just an unpleasant experience - it can also be a major health problem. Some bacteria develop resistance to otherwise effective treatment with antibiotics. Therefore, researchers are trying to develop new types of antibiotics that can fight the bacteria, and at the same time trying to make the current treatment with antibiotics more effective.

Researchers are now getting closer to this goal with a type of bacteria called Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is notorious for infecting patients with the lung disease cystic fibrosis. In a new study, researchers found that the bacteria send out warning signals to their conspecifics when attacked by antibiotics or the viruses called bacteriophages which kill bacteria.

'We can see in the laboratory that the bacteria simply swim around the 'dangerous area' with antibiotics or bacteriophages. When they receive the warning signal from their conspecifics, you can see in the microscope that they are moving in a neat circle around. It is a smart survival mechanism for the bacteria. If it turns out that the bacteria use the same evasive manoeuvre when infecting humans, it may help explain why some bacterial infections cannot be effectively treated with antibiotics', says researcher Nina Molin Høyland-Kroghsbo, Assistant Professor at the Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences and part of the research talent programme UCPH-Forward.

One United Organism

In the study, which is a collaboration between the University of Copenhagen and the University of California Irvine, researchers have studied the growth and distribution of bacteria in petri dishes. Here, they have created environments that resemble the surface of the mucous membranes where an infection can occur - as is the case with the lungs of a person with cystic fibrosis.

In this environment, researchers can see both how bacteria usually behave and how they behave when they are affected by antibiotics and bacteriophages.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on November 6, 2019 at 9:09am

World scientists’ warning of a climate emergency

A new report by 11,258 scientists in 153 countries from a broad range of disciplines warns that the planet “clearly and unequivocally faces a climate emergency,” and provides six broad policy goals that must be met to address it.

The study, called the “World scientists’ warning of a climate emergency,” marks the first time a large group of scientists has formally come out in favor of labeling climate change an “emergency,” which the study notes is caused by many human trends that are together increasing greenhouse gas emissions.

The report, published 5th Nov., 2019 in the journal Bioscience, was spearheaded by the ecologists Bill Ripple and Christopher Wolf of Oregon State University, along with William Moomaw, a Tufts University climate scientist, and researchers in Australia and South Africa.

The study clearly lays out the huge challenge of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The paper bases its conclusions on a set of easy-to-understand indicators that show the human influence on climate, such as 40 years of greenhouse gas emissions, economic trends, population growth rates, per capita meat production, and global tree cover loss, as well as consequences, such as global temperature trends and ocean heat content.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on October 29, 2019 at 6:05am

New light on how bacteria evolves resistance to drugs

Bacterial Evolution: The road to resistance

The way that bacteria grow – either floating in liquid or attached to a surface – affects their ability to evolve antimicrobial resistance and our ability to treat infections.

https://elifesciences.org/articles/52092?utm_source=content_alert&a...

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Why kids may be at risk from vinyl floors and fire-resistant couches

Chemicals called semivolatile organic compounds have been linked to health problems

https://www.sciencenews.org/article/chemicals-vinyl-floors-fire-res...

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How Exercise Reprograms the Brain.As researchers unravel the molecular machinery that links exercise and cognition, working out is emerging as a promising neurotherapy.

https://www.the-scientist.com/features/this-is-your-brain-on-exerci...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on October 25, 2019 at 8:43am

Algae inside blood vessels could act as oxygen factories

An unconventional way to get O₂ to nerve cells might one day aid stroke patients

Using algae as local oxygen factories in the brain might one day lead to therapies for strokes or other damage from too little oxygen, researchers from Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich said October 21 at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience.

The researchers injected either green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) or cyanobacteria (Synechocystis) into tadpoles’ blood vessels, creating an eerie greenish animal. Both algae species make oxygen in response to light shining through the tadpoles’ translucent bodies.

When the researchers depleted the oxygen in the liquid surrounding a disembodied tadpole head, eye nerves fell silent and stopped firing signals. But a few minutes after a flash of algae-activating light, the nerves started firing signals again, the researchers found.

This work does “motivate further exploration of unconventional approaches to advance the treatments for brain hypoxia, including stroke.”

https://www.abstractsonline.com/pp8/index.html#!/7883/presentation/...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on September 23, 2019 at 8:39am

 

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