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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 19 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 824 articles posted here in this group. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......185

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  their children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

 A+. sci-com-what-makes-a-story-news-worthy-in-science

 B+. is-a-perfect-language-important-in-writing-science-stories

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

Monkeypox: what you need to know

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday. 1 Reply

Four new cases of monkeypox have been reported in the UK, bringing the total number of confirmed…Continue

Researchers use galaxy as a 'cosmic telescope' to study heart of the young universe

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday. 1 Reply

They say where there is a will, there is  a way. Scientists use this will to find a way to do things that seem impossible in the ordinary world. In a scientific world, nothing is impossible!A unique…Continue

You can hear the sounds of aurora borealis even if you can't see it!

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday. 1 Reply

You can hear the sounds of aurora borealis even if you can't see it!Dr.…Continue

Extraordinary claims need genuine evidence! - part 1

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Wednesday. 1 Reply

Some people are sending me  stories of extraordinary claims and asking me to verify the truth. That is what we are here for. Okay let me post some of the stories   and the actual facts now. Story no.…Continue

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You need to be a member of Science Simplified! to add comments!

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on May 7, 2022 at 9:19am

Global bird populations steadily declining

Staggering declines in bird populations are taking place around the world. So concludes a study from scientists at multiple institutions, published recently in the journal Annual Review of Environment and Resources. Loss and degradation of natural habitats and direct overexploitation of many species are cited as the key threats to avian biodiversity. Climate change is identified as an emerging driver of bird population declines.

We are now witnessing the first signs of a new wave of extinctions of continentally distributed bird species. Avian diversity peaks globally in the tropics and it is there that we also find the highest number of threatened species.

The study says approximately 48% of existing bird species worldwide are known or suspected to be undergoing population declines. Populations are stable for 39% of species. Only 6% are showing increasing population trends, and the status of 7% is still unknown. The study authors reviewed changes in avian biodiversity using data from the International Union for Conservation of Nature's "Red List" to reveal population changes among the world's 11,000 bird species.

Because birds are highly visible and sensitive indicators of environmental health, we know their loss signals a much wider loss of biodiversity and threats to human health and well-being.

The fate of bird populations is strongly dependent on stopping the loss and degradation of habitats.

Alexander C. Lees et al, State of the World's Birds, Annual Review of Environment and Resources (2022). DOI: 10.1146/annurev-environ-112420-014642

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on May 7, 2022 at 8:45am

Drugs targeting cell recycling could be used to suffocate cancer cells

Pancreatic cancers recycle resources to fuel their survival and growth, opening up the possibility of new treatments aimed at stopping them from doing so, scientists report.

New findings show that pancreatic cancers make use of a key "recycler" protein to keep pace with their constant demand for oxygen and energy, as they grow and spread. Blocking the recycler could suffocate pancreatic cancer cells by starving them of oxygen and energy—and the researchers now plan to create new drugs aimed at suffocating tumors. The new study is the first to investigate the role in pancreatic cancer of "deubiquitylating enzymes" (DUBs)—which stop other proteins from being "binned" by the body so they can be recycled instead.

Researchers identified a DUB called USP25 as a key "recycler" protein which supported the survival and growth of cancer cells.

Pancreatic tumors are known to have low oxygen "micro-environments." This is because the rapid growth of pancreatic cancer often outstrips the oxygen supply, which cancer cells need to survive and grow. Researchers found that USP25 can regulate a protein known as HIF-1a to help pancreatic cancer cells adapt to low oxygen levels in the tumor. USP25 does this by preventing HIF-1a from being "binned," so it can form new blood vessels to supply the cancer with oxygenated blood.

Scientists showed that genetically deleting USP25, or blocking it using drugs, meant mini-tumors were unable to grow, as they were starved of oxygen. They believe that by acting as a "recycler" protein, USP25 can reverse the protein modifications on HIF-1a that destine it to be degraded by the body, stabilizing HIF-1a and allowing it to continue supplying oxygen and nutrients to cancer cells. In this way, USP25 plays a role in helping pancreatic cancer grow and spread. Researchers think the mechanism may also be important for other low-oxygen tumor types, such as breast cancer, and plan to explore it further. They will seek to design USP25 inhibitors and ultimately to assess the new approach to treatment in patients with pancreatic cancer. They are also planning to investigate the role of other druggable DUBs in pancreatic cancer.

Jessica K. Nelson et al, USP25 promotes pathological HIF-1-driven metabolic reprogramming and is a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer, Nature Communications (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-29684-9

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on May 6, 2022 at 12:11pm

Miracle plant seagrass

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on May 6, 2022 at 9:46am

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on May 5, 2022 at 11:52am

Cancer origin identified through cell 'surgery'

Research sheds new light on a key cause of cancer formation during cell division (or mitosis), and points towards potential solutions for preventing it from occurring.

When a cell divides normally, it makes a copy of every chromosome and then shares them equally between the two new cells. This function is carried out by a complex machine in the cell called the mitotic spindle. If something goes wrong at this stage, the two new cells will be aneuploid, meaning that they will not have the correct number of chromosomes and will make mistakes when sharing genetic information.

Cancer cells are aneuploid, so understanding how and why this happens is hugely significant in finding out how the disease originates. This new work has identified exactly this.

Researchers found that some chromosomes can get lost and trapped in a tangle of membranes that exist in an area around the cell's spindle, preventing the chromosomes from being shared properly and leading to the abnormal cell division that can cause cancer.

They made their discovery by performing a sort of "surgery" on living cells. The researchers invented a way to remove the tangle of membranes in which chromosomes get trapped, and as a result the chromosomes were rescued by the spindle, thus enabling normal healthy cell division.

Researchers  found that chromosomes can get trapped in membranes and this is a disaster for the dividing cell. It has the potential to change a normal cell into a cancer cell. Preventing this process may be a way to treat disease.

This proved, for the first time, that chromosomes getting caught in these membranes is a direct risk factor for the formation of cancerous cells. Understanding this risk can lead to more effective cancer prevention.

Nuria Ferrandiz et al, Endomembranes promote chromosome missegregation by ensheathing misaligned chromosomes, Journal of Cell Biology (2022). DOI: 10.1083/jcb.202203021

https://researchnews.cc/news/12986/Cancer-origin-identified-through...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on May 5, 2022 at 9:57am

What still remains a mystery is why humans evolved to have a BRCA2 gene that increases the risk of developing cancer, though there is the possibility that it was a tradeoff between an increased risk of cancer and an increase in . Prior research has shown that women with a BRCA2 variant that makes them more susceptible to developing cancer can more easily become pregnant. The work also suggests that a means for treating cancer in the distant future may involve altering the BRCA2 gene to make it more like other primates, thereby reducing the overall risk of developing cancer.

 Christine A. Iacobuzio-Donahue, Evidence for Reduced BRCA2 Functional Activity in Homo Sapiens After Divergence from the Chimpanzee-Human Last Common Ancestor, Cell Reports (2022). DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2022.110771www.cell.com/cell-reports/full … 2211-1247(22)00535-6

https://phys.org/news/2022-05-evidence-dna-humans-susceptible-cance...

Part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on May 5, 2022 at 9:57am

Evidence that a DNA change made humans more susceptible to cancer

A team of researchers at the Sloan Kettering Institute working with a group at the American Museum of Natural History has found evidence of a change in human DNA after diverging from other primates that has made humans more susceptible to the development of cancerous tumors. In their paper published in the journal Cell Reports, the group compares human genes to those of other primates to learn more about why humans are more prone to developing cancer.

Prior research has shown that humans are more likely to develop  than any other primate, but the reason has remained a mystery until now. To find the answer, the researchers compared parts of the human genome with similar parts of 12 non-human primate genomes. They found a small difference in the BRCA2 gene that had to have arisen after humans diverged from other primates. The BRCA2 gene plays a role in tumor suppression due to coding for DNA repair.

The researchers then looked at the impact of the letter change in the human DNA and found that it lessened its effectiveness at coding for DNA repair by approximately 20%. And that, the researchers suggest, could explain why humans are more susceptible to the development of tumors. The findings align with results from prior research that has shown that humans with a certain BRCA2 variant are more likely to develop tumors, particularly of the ovaries and breast.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on May 5, 2022 at 9:14am

The study, published in the journal Microbiome, found that the microbiota from old donors led to loss of integrity of the lining of the gut, allowing bacterial products to cross into the circulation, which results in triggering the  and inflammation in the brain and eyes.

Age-related chronic inflammation, known as inflammaging, has been associated with the activation of specific immune cells found in brain. These cells were also over-activated in the young mice who received aged microbiome transplants.

In the eye, the team also found specific proteins associated with retinal degeneration were elevated in the young mice receiving microbiota from old donors.

In old mice, these detrimental changes in the gut, eye and brain could be reversed by transplanting the gut microbiota from young mice.

In ongoing studies, the team are now working to understand how long these positive effects can last, and to identify the beneficial components of the young donor microbiota and how they impact on organs distant from the gut.

The microbiota of young mice, and the old mice who received young microbiota transplants were enriched in beneficial bacteria that have previously been associated with  in both mice and humans.

The researchers have also analyzed the products which these bacteria produce by breaking down elements of our diet. This has uncovered significant shifts in particular lipids (fats) and vitamin metabolism, which may be linked to the changes seen in inflammatory cells in the eye and brain.

Similar pathways exist in humans, and the human gut microbiota also changes significantly in later life, but the researchers caution about extrapolating their results directly to humans until similar studies in elderly humans can be performed.

Aimée Parker et al, Fecal microbiota transfer between young and aged mice reverses hallmarks of the aging gut, eye, and brain, Microbiome (2022). DOI: 10.1186/s40168-022-01243-w

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-05-fecal-transplants-reverse-ha...

Part 2

  1. Aimée Parker, Stefano Romano, Rebecca Ansorge, Asmaa Aboelnour, Gwenaelle Le Gall, George M. Savva, Matthew G. Pontifex, Andrea Telatin, David Baker, Emily Jones, David Vauzour, Steven Rudder, L. Ashley Blackshaw, Glen Jeffery, Simon R. Carding. Fecal microbiota transfer between young and aged mice reverses hallmarks of the aging gut, eye, and brain. Microbiome, 2022; 10 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s40168-022-01243-w
Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on May 5, 2022 at 9:13am

Fecal transplants reverse hallmarks of aging

In the search for eternal youth, poo transplants may seem like an unlikely way to reverse the aging process.

However, scientists  have provided evidence, from research in mice, that transplanting fecal microbiota from young into old mice can reverse hallmarks of aging in the gut, eyes, and brain.

In the reverse experiment, microbes from aged mice induced inflammation in the brain of young recipients and depleted a key protein required for normal vision.

These findings show that gut microbes play a role in the regulating some of the detrimental effects of aging and open up the possibility of gut microbe-based therapies to combat decline in later life.

It has been known for some time that the population of microbes that we carry around in our gut, collectively called the , is linked to health. Most diseases are associated with changes in the types and behavior of bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microbes in an individual's gut.

Some of these changes in microbiota composition happen as we age, adversely affecting metabolism and immunity, and this has been associated with age-related disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases, along with cardiovascular, autoimmune, metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders.

--

To better understand the effects of these changes in the microbiota in old age, scientists  transferred the gut microbes from aged mice into healthy young mice, and vice versa. They then looked at how this affected inflammatory hallmarks of aging in the gut, brain and eye, which suffer from declining function in later life.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on May 4, 2022 at 1:24pm

Humanity will need to survive about 400,000 years if we want any chance of hearing from an alien civilization

If there are so many galaxies, stars, and planets, where are all the aliens, and why haven't we heard from them? Those are the simple questions at the heart of the Fermi Paradox. In a new paper, a pair of researchers ask the next obvious question: How long will we have to survive to hear from another alien civilization?

Their answer? 400,000 years.

Four-hundred-thousand years is a long time for a species that's only been around for a couple hundred thousand years, and only discovered farming about 12,000 years ago. But 400,000 years is how long we'll need to keep this human experiment going if we want to hear from any alien civilizations. That's according to some new research into communicating extraterrestrial intelligent civilizations (CETIs.)

The paper is "The Number of Possible CETIs within Our Galaxy and the Communication Probability among These CETIs." The authors are Wenjie Song and He Gao, both from the Department of Astronomy at Beijing Normal University. The paper is published in The Astrophysical Journal.

Wenjie Song et al, The Number of Possible CETIs within Our Galaxy and the Communication Probability among These CETIs, The Astrophysical Journal (2022). DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac561d

https://phys.org/news/2022-05-humanity-survive-years-chance-alien.h...

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