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Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 14 hours ago

         WE LOVE SCIENCE HERE BECAUSE IT IS A MANY SPLENDOURED THING

     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 845 articles posted here in this group. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28

part-29part-30part-31part-32part-33part-34part-35part-36part-37,

 part-38part-40part-41part-42part-43part-44part-45part-46part-47

Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53

part-54part-55part-57part-58part-59part-60part-61part-62part-63

part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...

.......185

BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  their children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

 A+. sci-com-what-makes-a-story-news-worthy-in-science

 B+. is-a-perfect-language-important-in-writing-science-stories

C+. https://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum/topics/sci-com-how-much-entertainment-is-too-much-while-communicating-sc

4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis

n.vaccine-woes

o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 

a.why-do-water-bodies-suddenly-change-colour

b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

19.science-and-superstitions-how-rational-thinking-can-make-you-work-better

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here: http://kkartlab.in/group/some-science/forum

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

Our mail ID: kkartlabin@gmail.com

Discussion Forum

Artificial photosynthesis can produce food without sunshine!

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday. 1 Reply

You must have studied in your school textbooks that photosynthesis by plants is necessary for food production. Now scientists are rewriting this story!Photosynthesis has evolved in plants for…Continue

Another step toward synthetic cells

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday. 1 Reply

Building functional synthetic cells from the bottom-up is an ongoing effort of scientists around the globe. Their use in studying cellular mechanisms in a highly controlled and pre-defined setting…Continue

How do scientists trace the origin or "ground zero" of a pandemic?

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jun 17. 1 Reply

Q: How do scientists trace the origin or "ground zero" of a pandemic?Krishna: Scientists read the virus ( or microbes') genome, tracing its origins and looking for dangerous mutations to understand…Continue

Derealization and depersonalization disorders

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jun 16. 1 Reply

Q: What is Derealization disease?Q: What is depersonalization? Krishna: Derealization is a mental state where you feel detached from your surroundings. People and objects around you may seem unreal.…Continue

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You need to be a member of Science Simplified! to add comments!

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 3, 2022 at 10:28am

HIV patients 'cured' by their own unique biology may harbor secrets to end the global scourge

Some people diagnosed with HIV are able to eradicate the virus without antiretroviral medications or even stem cell transplants, possessing the ability to naturally suppress the virus and achieve a medically verifiable cure.

Scientists call this small population , a moniker that reflects their unique ability to keep one of the most notorious viruses at bay.

Two of these patients have garnered fame in the scientific literature in recent months, each known mostly by a code name: the San Francisco Patient, and another called the Esperanza Patient. Both are women who have been spotlighted in medical journals and at scientific conferences for having eradicated HIV from their bodies.

Beyond those two celebrated examples, new research from the Ragon Institute in Boston has zeroed in on a larger group of elite controllers—58 altogether—who have also been able to keep the virus at bay by virtue of their distinct biological capabilities. The elite controllers were compared with 42 HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy, people who represent the vast majority of those diagnosed globally with HIV.

Writing in Science Translational Medicine, immunologists at the institute report that they have uncovered a deep well of new clues that point to elite controllers' unusual ability to eradicate the virus. One reason is a powerful immune response, but another centers on where latent viral genetic sequences are stranded in the human genome. These sequences tend to be in tucked into chromosomes in remote regions where they're less likely to replicate, but more likely to be found by immune forces.

The research is opening a new window of understanding into what it means to be infected with HIV, a virus that is estimated to affect 38 million people globally. Millions worldwide have died since the HIV pandemic began 40 years ago.

Most patients take  for life to hold the virus in check, but elite controllers can handily subdue HIV for long periods without the need for medications. Although the San Francisco Patient was infected in 1992, she has kept the virus at bay for decades. Her existence—and that of other elite controllers—defies the long-held dogma that HIV infection is invariably for life.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 2, 2022 at 10:54am

2021's Breakthroughs in Neuroscience and Other Biology

2021's Biggest Breakthroughs in Physics
Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on January 1, 2022 at 9:10am

Science’s 2021 Breakthrough of the Year: AI brings protein structures to all

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 31, 2021 at 9:26am

A Novel Approach to Target Enhancer-Addicted Cancers

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 31, 2021 at 9:10am

India saw record 126 tiger deaths in 2021

India's tiger conservation body said 126 of the endangered big cats died in 2021, the most since it began compiling data a decade ago.

It is believed there were around 40,000 tigers at the time of independence in 1947 but hunting and habitat loss has slashed the population to dangerously low levels.

In 2010, India and 12 other countries signed an agreement to double tiger numbers by 2022.

Over the past decade the biggest reason for deaths recorded by the NTCA was "natural causes", but many also fell victim to poachers and "human-animal conflict".

Human encroachment on tiger habitats has increased in recent decades in the country of 1.3 billion people. This caused human deaths too deaths due to human-animal conflict and were driven by "the fragmentation of the tiger's natural habitat." Tigers range over large jungle areas and find it impossible to migrate to other forests without crossing human habitations, increasing chances of conflict. Critics also say that the government has also loosened environmental regulations for projects including mining.

Increasing demand for tiger skins and use of tiger body parts in traditional Chinese medicine were some of the major reasons for poaching.

The government has made efforts to manage the tiger population better, however, reserving 50 habitats across the country for the animals. But tigers were still under threat from poaching and habitat destruction and the wild animal populations had fragmented, increasing the risk of inbreeding.

Many tiger populations were confined to small protected areas.

Many of the "habitat corridors" enabling the animals to roam between these areas were at risk due to human activity and development. 

https://phys.org/news/2021-12-india-tiger-deaths.html?utm_source=nw...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 31, 2021 at 9:02am

 Lab experiments show how cells 'eat'

A new study shows how cell membranes curve to create the "mouths" that allow the cells to consume things that surround them.

The study found that the intercellular machinery of a cell assembles into a highly curved basket-like structure that eventually grows into a closed cage. Membrane curvature is important: It controls the formation of the pockets that carry substances into and out of a cell.

The pockets capture substances around the cell, forming around the extracellular substances, before turning into vesicles—small sacs one-one millionth the size of a red blood cell. Vesicles carry important things for a cell's health—proteins, for example—into the cell. But they can also be hijacked by pathogens that can infect cells.

But the question of how those pockets formed from membranes that were previously believed to be flat had stymied researchers for nearly 40 years. Scientists now were able to use super-resolution fluorescence imaging to actually watch these pockets form within live cells, and so they could answer that question of how they are created.

Experiments revealed that protein scaffolds start deforming the underlying membrane as soon as they are recruited to the sites of vesicle formation. The way cells consume and expel vesicles plays a key role for living organisms. The process helps clear bad cholesterol from blood; it also transmits neural signals. The process is known to break down in several diseases, including cancer and Alzheimer's disease.

Understanding the origin and dynamics of membrane-bound vesicles is important—they can be utilized for delivering drugs for medicinal purposes, but at the same time, hijacked by pathogens such as viruses to enter and infect cells. These results matter, not only for our understanding of the fundamentals of life, but also for developing better therapeutic strategies.

 Nathan M. Willy et al, De novo endocytic clathrin coats develop curvature at early stages of their formation, Developmental Cell (2021). DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2021.10.019

https://phys.org/news/2021-12-high-resolution-lab-cells.html?utm_so...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 30, 2021 at 9:16am

Universal COVID test based on isothermal amplification can detect all COVID-19 variants

Russian researchers have developed a strategy to create a cheap and rapid COVID-19 test based on isothermal amplification. According to their publication in Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, use of this strategy will make it possible to create universal test systems for any of the COVID-19 variants.

The Russian researchers developed a strategy that will help overcome earlier drawbacks and give healthcare professionals an opportunity to use LAMP testing to detect traces of any COVID variants in samples of mucus and blood without preliminary processing in a laboratory. This will decrease the cost of COVID-19 tests considerably and speed up the process, since no specially trained professionals or expensive equipment will be needed.

The virus mutates quite fast, and the test systems that were created a year ago may be not as effective as they used to be. Researchers now analyze the mutations and are looking for the most stable parts of the virus genome. This will help create test systems that recognize all the existing variants and, importantly, the new variants that are appearing.

To solve this challenge, HSE biologists are looking for parts of the coronavirus genome that do not change much over time. They will serve as markers that bacteria ferments will use to convert the COVID RNA into DNA and multiply it further. Combined with the existing LAMP system components, they will help create a universal COVID-19 testing system, which will be able to quickly detect traces of any COVID variants, the researchers say.

J. A. Makarova et al, Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification as a Promising Method for Mass COVID-19 Diagnostics, Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology (2021). DOI: 10.1134/S0003683821080032

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-12-universal-covid-based-isothe...

**

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 29, 2021 at 11:20am

Ubiquitin and Parkinson's Disease 

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 29, 2021 at 10:36am

In a neuroprosthetic first, ALS patient sends social media message via brain-computer interface

A 62-year-old amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient in Australia recently became the first person to post a message on social media using only his thoughts. On December 23, he posted an initial brief message, "Hello World," on Twitter.

The technology that allowed the patient  to send his message was developed by a brain computer interface company,  and the device is called the Stentrode Brain Computer Interface (SBCI); a type of endovascular brain implant. It was implanted into the patient's brain without opening his skull—instead, it was inserted through his jugular vein. The tiny (8 mm) brain implant was designed to allow people who have lost the ability to speak to communicate using only their thoughts. The SBCI is wireless and works by reading brainwaves and translating them to words—the motor neuroprosthesis was placed into the patient's brain using techniques that have been used for several years to treat people with strokes. Human clinical trials have been underway  for over a year—currently, the device has been implanted in just one other person, but more are planned.

The patient e is now able to compose messages by thinking of words or actions (such as mouse clicks), which are translated to activity on a computer screen.

https://techxplore.com/news/2021-12-neuroprosthetic-als-patient-soc...

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 29, 2021 at 10:09am

Scientists digitally 'unwrap' mummy of pharaoh Amenhotep I for the first time in 3,000 years

All the royal mummies found in the 19th and 20th centuries have long since been opened for study. With one exception: egyptologists have never been bold enough to open the mummy of Pharaoh Amenhotep I. Not because of any mythical curse, but because it is perfectly wrapped, beautifully decorated with flower garlands, and with face and neck covered by an exquisite lifelike facemask inset with colorful stones. But now for the first time, scientists from Egypt have used three-dimensional CT (computed tomography) scanning to 'digitally unwrap' this royal mummy and study its contents. They report their findings in Frontiers in Medicine.

This was the first time in three millennia that Amenhotep's  has been opened. The previous time was in the 11th century BCE, more than four centuries after his original mummification and burial. Hieroglyphics have described how during the later 21st dynasty, priests restored and reburied royal mummies from more ancient dynasties, to repair the damage done by grave robbers.

"This fact that Amenhotep I's mummy had never been unwrapped in modern times gave us a unique opportunity: not just to study how he had originally been mummified and buried, but also how he had been treated and reburied twice, centuries after his death.

By digitally unwrapping of the mummy and 'peeling off' its virtual layers—the facemask, the bandages, and the mummy itself—researchers could study this well-preserved pharaoh in unprecedented detail.

The things that were found during the study:  

Amenhotep I was approximately 35 years old when he died. He was approximately 169cm tall, circumcized, and had good teeth. Within his wrappings, he wore 30 amulets and a unique golden girdle with gold beads."

Amenhotep I seems to have physically resembled his father: he had a narrow chin, a small narrow nose, curly hair, and mildly protruding upper teeth. Researchers couldn't find any wounds or disfigurement due to disease to justify the cause of death, except numerous mutiliations post mortem, presumably by grave robbers after his first burial. His entrails had been removed by the first mummifiers, but not his brain or heart.

at least for Amenhotep I, the priests of the 21st dynasty lovingly repaired the injuries inflicted by the tomb robbers, restored his mummy to its former glory, and preserved the magnificent jewelry and amulets in place.

Sahar N. Saleem et al, Digital Unwrapping of the Mummy of King Amenhotep I (1525–1504 BC) Using CT, Frontiers in Medicine (2021). DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2021.778498

https://phys.org/news/2021-12-scientists-digitally-unwrap-mummy-pha...

 

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