Science, Art, Litt, Science based Art & Science Communication


Science Simplified!

                       JAI VIGNAN

All about Science - to remove misconceptions and encourage scientific temper

Communicating science to the common people

'To make  them see the world differently through the beautiful lense of  science'

Members: 22
Latest Activity: 14 hours ago


     THIS  IS A WAR ZONE WHERE SCIENCE FIGHTS WITH NONSENSE AND WINS                                               

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.”             

                    "Being a scientist is a state of mind, not a profession!"

                  "Science, when it's done right, can yield amazing things".

"Knowledge is a Superpower but the irony is you cannot get enough of it with ever increasing data base unless you try to keep up with it constantly and in the right way!" The best education comes from learning from people who know what they are exactly talking about.

Science is this glorious adventure into the unknown, the opportunity to discover things that nobody knew before. And that’s just an experience that’s not to be missed. But it’s also a motivated effort to try to help humankind. And maybe that’s just by increasing human knowledge—because that’s a way to make us a nobler species.

If you are scientifically literate the world looks very different to you.

We do science and science communication not because they are easy but because they are difficult!

There are about 845 articles posted here in this group. Links to some important articles :

1. Interactive science series...

a. how-to-do-research-and-write-research-papers-part 13

b. Some Qs people asked me on science and my replies to them...

Part 6part-10part-11part-12, part 14  ,  part- 8

part- 1part-2part-4part-5part-16part-17part-18 , part-19 , part-20

part-21 , part-22part-23part-24part-25part-26part-27 , part-28



Part 48 part49Critical thinking -part 50 , part -51part-52part-53


part 64, part-65part-66part-67part-68part 69part-70 part-71part-73 ...


BP variations during pregnancy part-72

who is responsible for the gender of  their children - a man or a woman -part-56

c. some-questions-people-asked-me-on-science-based-on-my-art-and-poems -part-7

d. science-s-rules-are-unyielding-they-will-not-be-bent-for-anybody-part-3-

e. debate-between-scientists-and-people-who-practice-and-propagate-pseudo-science - part -9

f. why astrology is pseudo-science part 15

g. How Science is demolishing patriarchal ideas - part-39

2. in-defence-of-mangalyaan-why-even-developing-countries-like-india need space research programmes

3. Science communication series:

a. science-communication - part 1

b. how-scienitsts-should-communicate-with-laymen - part 2

c. main-challenges-of-science-communication-and-how-to-overcome-them - part 3

d. the-importance-of-science-communication-through-art- part 4

e. why-science-communication-is-geting worse - part  5

f. why-science-journalism-is-not-taken-seriously-in-this-part-of-the-world - part 6

g. blogs-the-best-bet-to-communicate-science-by-scientists- part 7

h. why-it-is-difficult-for-scientists-to-debate-controversial-issues - part 8

i. science-writers-and-communicators-where-are-you - part 9

j. shooting-the-messengers-for-a-different-reason-for-conveying-the- part 10

k. why-is-science-journalism-different-from-other-forms-of-journalism - part 11

l.  golden-rules-of-science-communication- Part 12

m. science-writers-should-develop-a-broader-view-to-put-things-in-th - part 13

n. an-informed-patient-is-the-most-cooperative-one -part 14

o. the-risks-scientists-will-have-to-face-while-communicating-science - part 15

p. the-most-difficult-part-of-science-communication - part 16

q. clarity-on-who-you-are-writing-for-is-important-before-sitting-to write a science story - part 17

r. science-communicators-get-thick-skinned-to-communicate-science-without-any-bias - part 18

s. is-post-truth-another-name-for-science-communication-failure?

t. why-is-it-difficult-for-scientists-to-have-high-eqs

u. art-and-literature-as-effective-aids-in-science-communication-and teaching

v.* some-qs-people-asked-me-on-science communication-and-my-replies-to-them

 ** qs-people-asked-me-on-science-and-my-replies-to-them-part-173

w. why-motivated-perception-influences-your-understanding-of-science

x. science-communication-in-uncertain-times

y. sci-com: why-keep-a-dog-and-bark-yourself

z. How to deal with sci com dilemmas?

 A+. sci-com-what-makes-a-story-news-worthy-in-science

 B+. is-a-perfect-language-important-in-writing-science-stories


4. Health related topics:

a. why-antibiotic-resistance-is-increasing-and-how-scientists-are-tr

b. what-might-happen-when-you-take-lots-of-medicines

c. know-your-cesarean-facts-ladies

d. right-facts-about-menstruation

e. answer-to-the-question-why-on-big-c

f. how-scientists-are-identifying-new-preventive-measures-and-cures-

g. what-if-little-creatures-high-jack-your-brain-and-try-to-control-

h. who-knows-better?

i. mycotoxicoses

j. immunotherapy

k. can-rust-from-old-drinking-water-pipes-cause-health-problems

l. pvc-and-cpvc-pipes-should-not-be-used-for-drinking-water-supply

m. melioidosis


o. desensitization-and-transplant-success-story

p. do-you-think-the-medicines-you-are-taking-are-perfectly-alright-then revisit your position!

q. swine-flu-the-difficlulties-we-still-face-while-tackling-the-outb

r. dump-this-useless-information-into-a-garbage-bin-if-you-really-care about evidence based medicine

s. don-t-ignore-these-head-injuries

t. the-detoxification-scam

u. allergic- agony-caused-by-caterpillars-and-moths

General science: 


b. don-t-knock-down-your-own-life-line

c. the-most-menacing-animal-in-the-world

d. how-exo-planets-are-detected

e. the-importance-of-earth-s-magnetic-field

f. saving-tigers-from-extinction-is-still-a-travail

g. the-importance-of-snakes-in-our-eco-systems

h. understanding-reverse-osmosis

i. the-importance-of-microbiomes

j. crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-a-boon-to-fixing-defective-gen

k. biomimicry-a-solution-to-some-of-our-problems

5. the-dilemmas-scientists-face

6. why-we-get-contradictory-reports-in-science

7. be-alert-pseudo-science-and-anti-science-are-on-prowl

8. science-will-answer-your-questions-and-solve-your-problems

9. how-science-debunks-baseless-beliefs

10. climate-science-and-its-relevance

11. the-road-to-a-healthy-life

12. relative-truth-about-gm-crops-and-foods

13. intuition-based-work-is-bad-science

14. how-science-explains-near-death-experiences

15. just-studies-are-different-from-thorough-scientific-research

16. lab-scientists-versus-internet-scientists

17. can-you-challenge-science?

18. the-myth-of-ritual-working

20. comets-are-not-harmful-or-bad-omens-so-enjoy-the-clestial-shows

21. explanation-of-mysterious-lights-during-earthquakes

22. science-can-tell-what-constitutes-the-beauty-of-a-rose

23. what-lessons-can-science-learn-from-tragedies-like-these

24. the-specific-traits-of-a-scientific-mind

25. science-and-the-paranormal

26. are-these-inventions-and-discoveries-really-accidental-and-intuitive like the journalists say?

27. how-the-brain-of-a-polymath-copes-with-all-the-things-it-does

28. how-to-make-scientific-research-in-india-a-success-story

29. getting-rid-of-plastic-the-natural-way

30. why-some-interesting-things-happen-in-nature

31. real-life-stories-that-proves-how-science-helps-you

32. Science and trust series:

a. how-to-trust-science-stories-a-guide-for-common-man

b. trust-in-science-what-makes-people-waver

c. standing-up-for-science-showing-reasons-why-science-should-be-trusted

You will find the entire list of discussions here:

( Please go through the comments section below to find reports/research results relating to science reported on a daily basis and watch videos based on science)

Get interactive...

Please contact us if you want us to add any information or scientific explanation on any topic that interests you. We will try our level best to give you the right information.

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Discussion Forum

Artificial photosynthesis can produce food without sunshine!

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa yesterday. 1 Reply

You must have studied in your school textbooks that photosynthesis by plants is necessary for food production. Now scientists are rewriting this story!Photosynthesis has evolved in plants for…Continue

Another step toward synthetic cells

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on Thursday. 1 Reply

Building functional synthetic cells from the bottom-up is an ongoing effort of scientists around the globe. Their use in studying cellular mechanisms in a highly controlled and pre-defined setting…Continue

How do scientists trace the origin or "ground zero" of a pandemic?

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jun 17. 1 Reply

Q: How do scientists trace the origin or "ground zero" of a pandemic?Krishna: Scientists read the virus ( or microbes') genome, tracing its origins and looking for dangerous mutations to understand…Continue

Derealization and depersonalization disorders

Started by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa. Last reply by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa Jun 16. 1 Reply

Q: What is Derealization disease?Q: What is depersonalization? Krishna: Derealization is a mental state where you feel detached from your surroundings. People and objects around you may seem unreal.…Continue

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Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 24, 2021 at 11:15am

Frog cells transform into tiny living robots

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 24, 2021 at 11:04am

A special microbe turns oil into gases all by itself

Microorganisms can convert oil into natural gas, i.e. methane. Until recently, it was thought that this conversion was only possible through the cooperation of different organisms. In 2019, Rafael Laso-Pérez and Gunter Wegener from the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology suggested that a special archaeon can do this all by itself, as indicated by their genome analyses. Now, in collaboration with a team from China, the researchers have succeeded in cultivating this “miracle microbe” in the laboratory. This enabled them to describe exactly how the microbe achieves the transformation. They also discovered that it prefers to eat rather bulky chunks of food.

Underground oil deposits on land and in the sea are home to microorganisms that use the oil as a source of energy and food, converting it into methane. Until recently, it was thought that this conversion was only possible in a complicated teamwork between different organisms: certain bacteria and usually two archaeal partners. Now the researchers have managed to cultivate an archaeon called Methanoliparia from a settling tank of an oil production facility that handles this complex reaction all by itself.

This “miracle microbe” breaks down oil into methane and carbon dioxide. Now that the researchers have succeeded in cultivating these microorganisms in the laboratory, they were able to investigate the underlying processes in detail. They discovered that its genetic make-up gives Methanoliparia unique capabilities. “In its genes it carries the blueprints for enzymes that can activate and decompose various hydrocarbons. In addition, it also has the complete gear kit of a methane producer.

n their laboratory cultures, the researchers offered the microbes various kinds of food and used a variety of different methods to keep a close eye on how Methanoliparia deal with it. What was particularly surprising to see was that this archaeon activated all the different hydrocarbons with one and the same enzyme.

Zhuo Zhou, Cui-jing Zhang, Peng-fei Liu, Lin Fu, Ra­fael Laso-Pérez, Lu Yang, Li-ping Bai, Ji­ang Li, Min Yang, Jun-zhang Lin, Wei-dong Wang, Gunter We­gener, Meng Li, Lei Cheng (2021): Non-syn­trophic meth­ano­genic hy­dro­car­bon de­grad­a­tion by an ar­chaeal spe­cies. Nature (2021)

DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-04235-2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 24, 2021 at 11:00am

Mind-controlled robots now one step closer

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 24, 2021 at 10:48am

Comets' heads can be green, but never their tails. We finally know now why.

 Every so often, the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud throw galactic snowballs made up of ice, dust and rocks our way: 4.6-billion-year-old leftovers from the formation of the solar system.

These snowballs – or as we know them, comets – go through a colourful metamorphosis as they cross the sky, with many comets’ heads turning a radiant green colour that gets brighter as they approach the Sun.

But strangely, this green shade disappears before it reaches the one or two tails trailing behind the comet.

Astronomers, scientists and chemists have been puzzled by this mystery for almost a century. In the 1930s, physicist Gerhard Herzberg theorised the phenomenon was due to sunlight destroying diatomic carbon (also known as dicarbon or C2), a chemical created from the interaction between sunlight and organic matter on the comet’s head – but as dicarbon isn’t stable, this theory has been hard to test.

A new UNSW Sydney-led study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), has finally found a way to test this chemical reaction in a laboratory – and in doing so, has proven this 90-year-old theory correct.

This explains why the green coma – the fuzzy layer of gas and dust surrounding the nucleus – shrinks as a comet gets closer to the Sun, and also why the tail of the comet isn’t green.

The key player at the centre of the mystery, dicarbon, is both highly reactive and responsible for giving many comets their green colour. It’s made up of two carbon atoms stuck together and can only be found in extremely energetic or low oxygen environments like stars, comets and the interstellar medium.

Dicarbon doesn’t exist on comets until they get close to the Sun. As the Sun starts to warm the comet up, the organic matter living on the icy nucleus evaporates and moves to the coma. Sunlight then breaks up these larger organic molecules, creating dicarbon.

The UNSW-led team have now shown that as the comet gets even closer to the Sun, the extreme UV radiation breaks apart the dicarbon molecules it recently created in a process called ‘photodissociation’. This process destroys the dicarbon before it can move far from the nucleus, causing the green coma to get brighter and shrink – and making sure the green tinge never makes it into the tail.

This is the first time this chemical interaction has been studied here on Earth.

  1. Jasmin Borsovszky, Klaas Nauta, Jun Jiang, Christopher S. Hansen, Laura K. McKemmish, Robert W. Field, John F. Stanton, Scott H. Kable, Timothy W. Schmidt. Photodissociation of dicarbon: How nature breaks an unusual multiple bond. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2021; 118 (52): e2113315118 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2113315118
Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 24, 2021 at 8:43am

Circumstantially, microplastics have also been shown to stir up trouble by generating reactive oxygen species that are known to play a role in inflammation.

With that in mind, it's not at all surprising to imagine an increase in gut exposure to microplastic particles might play a similar role to certain microbes in sensitizing the lining to an exaggerated immune reaction.

Further studies will be needed before we can claim with any confidence that our dietary supplement of plastic dust is putting us at increased risk of any health problems. There are still too many unknowns.

But that doesn't mean we shouldn't be taking action. Evidence that the rising tide of plastic waste is affecting everything from the climate to the distribution of species to the health of marine life is mounting.

That our health might be just one more consequence is just more reason to wean ourselves off our dependence on this pervasive pollutant.

Part 3


Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 24, 2021 at 8:42am

Seven million people globally were diagnosed with IBD in 2017, a condition distinguished by regular bouts of discomfort and changes in bowel motion produced by a hair-trigger system overreacting to otherwise benign materials in the gut. 

The illness usually falls into one of two main diagnoses: Crohn's disease, which is typically characterized by an inflamed lining throughout the deeper layers of the digestive tract, and ulcerative colitis, which is marked by ulcers in the large intestine's lining.

In either case, the ultimate source of the errant immune response isn't yet fully understood, though suspicions lie with the complex way our guts negotiate diplomatic relations with our microflora, particularly during an infection.

Whether plastic particles might somehow involve themselves with a link in this chain has never been fully made clear, though animal studies have previously pointed to gut inflammation as a possible side effect of microplastic exposure.

Part 2

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 24, 2021 at 8:42am

Alarming Levels of Microplastics in The Feces of People With Irritable Bowel Diseases or IDB

A recent investigation by a team of researchers in Nanjing, China, has uncovered worrying signs that elevated levels of microplastics could be inflaming our digestive systems.

Feces collected from 52 individuals diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were found to contain around 1.5 times the number of plastic particles smaller than 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inches) than similar samples from volunteers without any chronic illnesses.

The vast majority of plastic particles were smaller than 300 micrometers, with a few detectable pieces coming in below a minuscule 5 micrometers across. The researchers noticed those with IBD also tended to have a greater proportion of smaller flakes of microplastic.

What's more, the greater the plastic load, the more severe the individual's IBD symptoms. 

A survey revealed nothing unusual about the origins of the plastic, suggesting it was the kinds of particles we all might ingest by drinking from PET bottles or eating out of single-use disposable containers.

As an observational study, the research doesn't establish cause and effect. Nobody can claim the difference in microplastic load is solely, or even partially responsible for the symptoms of diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and abdominal cramping associated with the illness.

It's even possible having IBD might make it harder to clear the build-up of plastic detritus that accumulates in our diets.

But the mere possibility of a connection is concerning enough to warrant further investigation, especially given the shocking rate at which plastic waste is spreading virtually unabated.

Part 1

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 24, 2021 at 8:35am

Scientists Just Identified a Brand New Muscle Layer in The Human Jaw

Undoubtedly there are still exciting new discoveries to be made in a field as well-studied as human anatomy: researchers have confirmed the existence of a layer of muscle in the human jaw that has until now eluded anatomists.

This new muscle is a deeper, third section of the masseter muscle. It's the most prominent jaw muscle: press your hand against the back of your jaw while you chew and you'll feel it moving.

Typically represented as having just two layers, there has been suspicions based on animal studies that there is more to its structure. However until now, attempts to describe it have been contradictory and confusing.

Through an analysis of more than two dozen human heads – including one living subject and 12 heads preserved in formaldehyde – it's been established through a new study that the masseter muscle does indeed have three distinct sections, not two.

This deep section of the masseter muscle is clearly distinguishable from the two other layers in terms of its course and function.

The name Musculus masseter pars coronidea, or the coronoid section of the masseter, has been proposed for the new muscle layer by the researchers, because it attaches to the muscular (coronoid) process of the lower jaw – the mandible bone.

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 23, 2021 at 10:51am

Researchers identify mechanism that explains how tissues form complex shapes that enable organ function

Our bodies are made of tissues arranged in complex shapes that aid in performing specific functions.

But how do cells fold themselves so precisely into such complicated configurations during development? What are the  driving this process?

Now, researchers at Harvard Medical School have discovered a mechanical process by which sheets of cells morph into the delicate, looping semicircular canals of the inner ear.

The research reveals that the process involves a combination of , produced by cells, that swells with water, and thin connectors between cells that direct the force of this swelling to shape the tissue.

The conventional thinking is that the proteins actin and myosin act as tiny motors inside cells, pushing and pulling them in different directions to fold a tissue into a specific shape. However, the researchers discovered that zebrafish semicircular canals form through a markedly different process. During development, the cells produce hyaluronic acid, which is perhaps most well known as an antiwrinkle agent in beauty products. Once in the extracellular matrix the acid swells up, not unlike a diaper in a swimming pool. This swelling creates enough force to physically move nearby cells, but since the pressure is the same in all directions, the researchers wondered how the tissue ends up stretching in one direction and not another to form an elongated shape. The team found that this is accomplished by thin connectors between cells—dubbed cytocinches—that constrain the force.

It's like if you were to put a corset on a water balloon and deform it into an oblong structure. This combination of swelling and cinching progressively shapes an initially flat sheet of cells into tubes.

Although conducted in zebrafish, the work reveals a basic mechanism for how tissues take on shapes—one that is likely to be conserved across vertebrates, the researchers say, and may also have implications for bioengineering.

The genes that control hyaluronic acid production in zebrafish semicircular canals are also present in the semicircular canals  of mammals, suggesting that a similar process may be occurring. Moreover, hyaluronic acid is found in multiple parts of the human body, including skin and joints, indicating that it may play a role in shaping many tissues and organs—an avenue for future research.

If that does turn out to be the case, then studying the genes involved in hyaluronic acid production could help researchers understand congenital defects in organs where hyaluronic acid drives development.

Sean G. Megason, Extracellular hyaluronate pressure shaped by cellular tethers drives tissue morphogenesis, Cell (2021). DOI: 10.1016/

Comment by Dr. Krishna Kumari Challa on December 23, 2021 at 9:28am

Fire and Ice: The Puzzling Link Between Western Wildfires & Arctic Sea Ice


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